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Cattle breeding, trypanosomosis prevalence and drug resistance in Northern Togo









E. Tchamdja, A.E. Kulo, H.S. Vitouley, K. Batawui, A.A. Bankolé, K. Adomefa, G. Cecchi, A. Hoppenheit, P.H. Clausen, R. De Deken, J. Van Den Abbeele, T. Marcotty, V. Delespaux, 2017, Cattle breeding, trypanosomosis prevalence and drug resistance in Northern Togo. Veterinary Parasitology. 236: 86−92. doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.02.008


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    Bovine trypanosomosis in the Upper West Region of Ghana: Entomological,parasitological and serological cross-sectional surveys 2011
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    Baseline surveys were conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana to assess the distribution and densities of tsetse species, as well as the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. The entomological survey was designed to cover the suitable tsetse habitats along the three main rivers in the study area (i.e. Black Volta, Kulpawn and Sissili). Results indicated the presence of Glossina tachinoides in all three river basins, whilst Glossina palpalis gambiensis was only found close to the south ern limit of the study area. A random sampling of 1800 cattle of the West African Short Horn, Sanga and Zebu breeds from 36 randomly selected grid cells covering the study area showed substantial differences between parasitological and serological prevalences. The average parasitological prevalence was estimated at 2.5% (95% CI: 1.06– 5.77) with the majority of the infections due to Trypanosoma vivax. Most of the infected cattle were found close to the major river systems. The serologi cal prevalence, measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), test was 19% (95% CI: 14.03–25.35). Cattle with anti-trypanosomal antibodies were also found throughout the study area.
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    Book (series)
    Drug management and parasite resistance in bovine trypanosomiasis in Africa 1998
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    Trypanocidal drugs remain the principal method of animal trypanosomiasis control in most African countries. However, there is growing concern that their future effectiveness may be severely curtailed by widespread drug resistance. This document presents an overview of the current situation of resistance to drugs for the chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis in African livestock. Although the number of case reports on drug resistance is increasing, there is a lack of reliable data at the regional or national level on the true prevalence and impact of drug resistance. In order to compare data on a temporal and spatial basis across Africa there is an urgent need for better standardization of tests for the detection of drug resistance. The advantages and disadvantages of the currently available assays are briefly reviewed and measures suggested to improve the situation. Finally, some guidelines on delaying the development of drug resistance are proposed and measures which may be adopted to control drug resistance when it occurs are recommended. Although there is still a lack of knowledge about the mechanisms of resistance and the factors responsible for the development of drug resistance, urgent measures are needed to maintain the efficacy of the existing drugs. Based on experiences of the control of resistance to other drugs such as antimalarials, antibiotics and anthelmintics it is suggested that reliance on the "sanative pair" guideline might not be sufficient to control resistance to trypanocides. This guideline needs to be accompanied by the following additional measures:
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    Book (series)
    Expert consultation on the sustainable management of parasites in livestock challenged by the global emergence of resistance
    Part 2: African animal trypanosomosis and drug resistance: a challenge to progressive, sustainable disease control
    2022
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    African animal trypanosomosis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by tsetse flies and other vectors in 37 African countries. Affecting livestock health and welfare, the disease imposes a heavy burden on communities that rely on domestic animals for their livelihoods. In most endemic areas, trypanosomosis control relies heavily on trypanocidal drugs, which are often the only tool farmers possess to manage the problem. Unfortunately, the few veterinary medicines to treat or prevent the disease are old and outdated, and their efficacy is challenged by the emergence and spread of resistant trypanosome strains. FAO convened experts to discuss how to control African animal trypanosomosis progressively and sustainably in the face of drug resistance. FAO organized the meeting in the framework of an Expert Consultation on the sustainable management of parasites in livestock challenged by the global emergence of resistance. The experts of animal trypanosomosis warned that over 17 countries in Africa have reported treatment failure possibly resulting from trypanocidal drug resistance, which hampers disease control and negatively affects food security and livelihoods. Several factors contribute to the emergence and spread of trypanocidal drug resistance, including drug overuse and misuse, the circulation of fake or substandard products and weak controls along the supply chains. The meeting recommended that national authorities should promote the quality control of trypanocides, raise awareness of rational drug use and strengthen data collection and surveillance. FAO and the other organizations of the Tripartite should develop and disseminate guidelines and best practices, provide a platform for technical and scientific discussions, and they should support advocacy, awareness and resource mobilization at the international level. Academic institutions should improve our understanding of the mechanisms and drivers of resistance and develop more effective tools to monitor and curb the spread of the problem.

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