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Monitoring and preventing ciguatera poisoning

E-learning fact sheet










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    Course 2: Engaging in Codex
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    2022
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    This fact-sheet is part of a series of four courses designed to improve understanding of Codex Alimentarius and develop sustainable national capacities to engage in and benefit from Codex work. In particular, it is the second course of this series and it guides the learner on how to establish a national Codex programme and make it functional. It further explains how to engage effectively in Codex at international level.
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    Report of the Expert Meeting on Ciguatera Poisoning
    Rome, 19-23 November 2018
    2020
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    Phytoplankton blooms, micro-algal blooms, toxic algae, red tides, or harmful algae, are all terms for naturally occurring phenomena that have occurred throughout recorded history. About 300 hundred species of micro algae are reported at times to form mass occurrence, so called blooms. Nearly one fourth of these species are known to produce toxins. Even non-toxic algal blooms can have devastating impacts when they lead to kills of fish and invertebrates by generating anoxic conditions. Some algal species, although non-toxic to humans, can produce exudates that can cause damage to the delicate gill tissues of fish (raphidophytes Chattonella, Heterosigma, and dinoflagellates Karenia, Karlodinium) . Aquatic animals can suffer devastating mortalities, which could lead economical and food losses, and eventually became a food security problem. Of greatest concern to humans are algal species that produce potent neurotoxins that can find their way through shellfish and fish to human consumers where they evoke a variety of gastrointestinal and neurological illnesses (paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), diarrhoeic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP) and ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP)). Worldwide, ciguatoxins are estimated to cause around 50 000 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning annually; neurological effects may last for weeks or even years and one percent of these cases are fatal . Climate change and costal water over enrichment create an enabling environment for harmful algal blooms, which seem to have become more frequent, more intense and more widespread in the past decades.
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    Bivalve mollusc sanitation: growing area assessment and review
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    2021
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    This fact sheet describes the course that details the Growing Area Assessment (GAA) and reviews process for establishing a bivalve mollusc growing area sanitation programme.The course provides a framework for data gathering, analysis, assessment and review of potential hazards in the growing area for bivalves intended for human consumption.This is the second course of the e-learning series on bivalve mollusc sanitation programmes.

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