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Support to the Planting gor Food and Jobs Campaign - TCP/GHA/3607









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    Document
    Yemen Plan of Action. Towards Resilient and Sustainable Livelihoods for Agriculture and Food and Nutrition Security 2014-2018 2014
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    Yemen, one of the least developed countries in the world, is experiencing a complex and protracted crisis that has heavily affected its political and socio-economic stability and economic performance. Years of conflict – compounded by the degradation of natural resources, limited food production, climate change and variability, population growth and widespread unemployment – have made much of Yemen’s population extremely vulnerable. Hunger affects 10.5 million people (nearly half the nation), in cluding 4.5 million who are severely food insecure. An overlapping 55 percent live in poverty and 35 percent are unemployed. Rural populations are disproportionately vulnerable, accounting for 84 percent of the country’s poor. Competition over scarce opportunities, resources and services is increasing fast. Yemen’s population is growing by 3.6 percent per year, half of its people are under the age of 15 and 60 percent of youth are jobless. Lack of employment opportunities, particularly for youth , fuels alienation and exclusion from the state and economy, and feeds into conflict, instability and increased migration. Growing numbers of internally displaced people (IDPs), refugees, migrants and returnees throughout Yemen are exerting further unsustainable pressure. Once self-sufficient in cereals, Yemen now depends on oil revenue to import nearly all of the country’s food. Around 95 percent of cereals consumed and 85 percent of overall foodstuffs were imported in 2013. Rising internationa l commodity prices further threaten the food consumption and dietary diversity of Yemen’s poor, as families must spend more money for the same amount of food. To cope, poor households often cut other critical expenses, such as schooling and medical care. There is tremendous need, scope and potential to strengthen agriculture in Yemen. The sector – encompassing crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry production – employs over half of the labour force and provides a livelihood to two out of three people. Despite severe resource constraints, agriculture remains one of the most promising sectors in terms of employment creation, economic growth and trade development.
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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Guinea-Bissau 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. The agricultural sector is the main stay of the economy of Guinea-Bissau. In the absence of other resources, the sector despite being underdeveloped plays a leading role in supporting food security and job creation. Presently it contributes about 46% of national gross domestic product (GDP) with 84% of the population actively employed in primary production agriculture largely dominated by women. The majority of these farmer are small scale farmers farming on less than two hectare (2 ha). More than half (58%) of the total land in Guinea-Bissau is used for agriculture with area under forest heavily degraded by rapid exploitation. However, there are huge potentials for agricultural and forestry land including arable land estimated at about 1.5 million hectares. Farmers engage in the production of diverse crops and livestock such as cashew, rice (country’s staple food), sorghum, maize, etc largely cultivated by subsistence farmers. Women usually take up horticulture in the urban areas. Livestock production concentrated mainly in the north and east of the country is one of the main economic activities supporting food security and thousands of livelihoods. The country is divided into three agroecological zones based on ecological, climatic and demographic characteristics. Agriculture is mainly rainfed with very limited irrigated farming practised. About 82% of water withdrawn is used for agricultural purposes impelling a necessity for huge investments in irrigation to support agriculture production. The projected population growth and food demand is expected to have serious implications on food security with a potential to affect the agricultural sector. Despite the agro-forestry-pastoral potential and fisheries resources of Guinea-Bissau, many studies have shown that, the current food situation in the country is very precarious with poverty identified as the underlining cause. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the agricultural sector has been identified as very high with the country indicating reforestation as the major action for mitigating GHG emissions in its nationally determined contribution (NDC). Some challenges for the agricultural sector identified include (i) growth in population and food demand, (ii) land use change and natural resource depletion, (iii) limited marketing opportunities of agricultural commodities, and (iv) climate change and variability. Guinea-Bissau has a typical hot, humid monsoon-like tropical climate with two well-defined seasons. Agriculture is exposed to the effects of climate change with the country vulnerable to droughts, floods and sea level rise. The projected changes in temperature and rainfall are expected to have substantial impact on water resources which are already limited in their capacity to provide sufficient water for the agriculture sector. CSA technologies and practises present opportunities for addressing climate change challenges as well as for economic growth and development of the agriculture sector. Identified CSA practises in use in the country include (i) use of organic manure, (ii) use of weather information, (iii) water supply through drip irrigation, (iv) anti-erosion arrangement, (v) forage/fodder production, (vi) crop rotation, and (vii) rainwater harvesting through the Zai technique. There are a number of institutions and policies aimed at supporting and increasing agriculture productivity and advancing CSA practises in Guinea-Bissau. These include government, private sector, the national institute for agrarian research and general directorate of rural engineering with each most of the institutions profiles having CSA-related activities that deliver on all three pillars of CSA. The Ministry of environment which serves as the country’s UNFCCC focal point and Nationally Designated Authority to the Green Climate Fund (GCF), Adaptation fund, Climate Investment Fund and Global Environment Facility is responsible for the country’s climate change plans and policies. The food and agriculture organisation of the United Nations, the United Nations development programme and the international union for conservation of nature play instrumental roles in the promotion of sustainable agriculture and environmental sustainability. Most of the climate change and CSA-related funding have come from international sources with the UNDP being of great support through its signature programmes.
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    Book (series)
    Aquaculture needs assessment mission report. Nairobi, Kenya
    GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project
    2013
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    The Aquaculture Needs Assessment of Kenya was jointly organized by the Government of Kenya and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), under the framework of the project GCP/RAF/466/EC “Implementation of a Regional Fisheries Strategy for the Eastern and Southern Africa and Indian Ocean Region”, otherwise known as SmartFish. SmartFish is funded by the European Union (EU) through the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) and co-implemented by the FAO. The needs assessment is one of the activities being implemented under Result 5M3.1 Sustainable Aquaculture Development Promotion, which responds to African countries’ desire to contribute their efforts to transform aquaculture from a non-viable, subsistence and public sector driven economy, to a resourceful, vibrant, private sector led sustainable enterprise. The needs assessment was carried out at specific sites in the western part of the country. The study involved: a desk review for the purpose of having background inf ormation about the sector; the site selection of study areas for the mission; the development of assessment tools and approach, ensuring FAO approval for their use; the execution of field assessments in the selected sites; and the production of this report. This report outlines the training needs and a training delivery plan; legal registration and networking recommendations; input requirements; as well as a distribution plan and costing. The desk review was done in the last week of June 2013. A field mission in Western Kenya was conducted over three weeks in August 2013. Report writing took three weeks in September 2013. The report was submitted in the third week of October 2013. Training of fish farmer groups, and provision of equipment and inputs to these groups, is scheduled for January and February 2014. This needs assessment focused on training and inputs, such as equipment and materials that are required by fish farmer groups. The assessment took place with fish farmer groups in Kisii, Kakamega, Homa Bay, Vihiga, Siaya, and Busia counties in Western Kenya. The training modules identified include: Best Management Practices (BMPs); group cohesion and development; aqua-business skills; marketing; record and book keeping; and efficient production technologies. Equipment needs include: deep freezers; sampling and harvesting nets; secchi disks; cool boxes; harvesting baskets; hapa nets; and weighing scales. From the study it is anticipated that the end point of the selected beneficiary clusters should be stand-alone, self-sufficient market structures that offer investors the best prices for inputs and products. It is also anticipated that once this end point is reached, the fish farm clusters should serve as the nuclei in an effort to expand market clusters to other small and medium enterprise investors across the country, and the region at large. The purpose was to assess the needs for aquaculture production and marketing in selected fish farmer organizations, so as to guide the support and investment choices for enhancement for sustainable aquaculture productivity and profitability in Western Kenya.  5 Recommendations include the following:  The groups to benefit from capacity building and provision of equipment include: Central Kakamega Aquaculture Cooperative; Muungano Fish Farmers (Bidii Fish Farmers and Yala Fish Farmers Cluster); Tilapia Fish Farmers Group; Wangchieng Fish Farmers Cluster; and the Butula Fish Farmers Cooperative;  The groups s hould be strengthened through training on group cohesion and market linkages;  Documentation of the work in the form of a video documentary should be undertaken to serve as a training tool. The aim is to develop long-term market linkages that optimize profits for group members.

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