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Technical reports - product by product development from Nile Perch (summary table)







Ochumba, P.B.O. Manyala, J.O.; Achuku, J.O. Oct 1988. Fish feed based on silage of Nile perch skeleton and Azolla waterplant Technical reports. Project Seminar on Improved Utilization of Nile Perch. Kisumu (Kenya). 28-31 Mar 1988. Rome (Italy). p. 67-74.


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    A strategic reassessment of fish farming potential in Africa 1998
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    The present study is an update of an earlier assessment of warm-water fish farming potential in Africa, by Kapetsky (1994). The objective of this study was to assess locations and areal expanses that have potential for warm-water and temperate-water fish farming in continental Africa. The study was based on previous estimates for Africa by the above author, and on estimates of potential for warm-water and temperate-water fish farming in Latin America by Kapetsky and Nath (1997). However, a nu mber of refinements have been made. The most important refinement was that new data allowed a sevenfold increase in resolution over that used in the previous Africa study, and a twofold increase over that of Latin America (i.e. to 3 arc minutes, equivalent to 5 km x 5 km grids at the equator), making the present results more usable in order to assess fish farming potential at the national level. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to evaluate each grid cell on the basis of severa l land-quality factors important for fish-farm development and operation regardless of the fish species used. Protected areas, large inland water bodies and major cities were identified as constraint areas, and were excluded from any fish farming development altogether. Small-scale fish farming potential was assessed on the basis of four factors: water requirement from ponds due to evaporation and seepage, soil and terrain suitability for pond construction based on a variety of soil attributes a nd slopes, availability of livestock wastes and agricultural by-products as feed inputs based on manure and crop potential, and farm-gate sales as a function of population density. For commercial farming, an urban market potential criterion was added based on population size of urban centres and travel time proximity. Both small-scale and commercial models were developed by weighting the above factors using a multi-criteria decision-making procedure. A bioenergetics model was incorporated int o the GIS to predict, for the first time, fish yields across Africa. A gridded water temperature data set was used as input to a bioenergetics model to predict number of crops per year for the following three species: Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Similar analytical approaches to those by Kapetsky and Nath (1997) were followed in the yield estimation. However, different specifications were used for small-scale and co mmercial farming scenarios in order to reflect the types of culture practices found in Africa. Moreover, the fish growth simulation model, documented in Kapetsky and Nath (1997), was refined to enable consideration of feed quality and high fish biomass in ponds. The small-scale and commercial models derived from the land-quality evaluation were combined with the yield potential of each grid cell for each of the three fish species to show the coincidence of each land-quality suitability class with a range of yield potentials. Finally, the land quality-fish yield potential combinations were put together to show where the fish farming potential coincided for the three fish species. The results are generally positive. Estimates of the quality of land show that about 23% of continental Africa scored very suitable for both small-scale and commercial fish farming. For the three fish species, 50-76% of Africa's land has the highest yield range potential, and the spatial distribution of th is yield is quite similar among the species and farming systems. However, the spatial distribution of carp culture potential was greater than for Nile tilapia and African catfish. Combining the two farming system models with the favourable yields of the three fish species suggest that over 15% of the continent has land areas with high suitability for pond aquaculture.
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    Handling and preservation of fruits and vegetables by combined methods for rural areas
    Technical Manual
    2003
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    This manual is intended to surve as a guide to farmers and processors of fruits and vegetables in rural areas. It contains basic but valuable information on post-harvest handling and marketing operations and storage of fresh and processed products. It provides practical examples of preserving fruits and vegetables addressing a combination of factors, highlighting technology which, when combined, has a positive and synergistic effect in preventing biochemical and physiochemical reactions and micr obial growth - the main causes of quality losses in fruits and vegetables. The suggested methodologies combine technologies such as mild heat treatment, water activity reduction (aw), lowering of the pH and use of anti-microbial substances to realize the potential of minimally processed, high-moisture fruit products. These relatively new technologies have been successfully applied to several important tropical and non-tropical fruits in different countries of Latin America and are considered app ropriate and recommended for use in other fruit-producing countries around the world.
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    On-farm feeding and feed management in aquaculture 2013
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    This technical paper provides a comprehensive review of on-farm feeding and feed management practices in aquaculture. It comprises of a) ten case studies on feeding and feed management practices carried out in seven selected countries of Asia and Africa for eight species that belong to four major farmed species of freshwater finfish and shellfish; b) an analysis of the findings of the above ten case studies and a separately published case study for Indian major carps carried out in India; c) ten invited specialist reviews on feed management practices from regional and global perspectives; and d) an overview of the current status of feed management practices. The country-specific case studies were carried out for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in China, Thailand, the Philippines, Egypt and Ghana; Indian major carps [rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhosus)] in India and Bangladesh, giant river prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in Bangladesh, strip ed catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Viet Nam and black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in India. The broad thematic areas that were addressed in these case studies and invited reviews are: i) current feed types (including fertilizers) and their use in semi-intensive and intensive farming systems; ii) on-farm feed production and management; iii) feeding and feed management strategies, feed procurement, transportation and storage; iv) environmental , economic, regulatory and legal frameworks of feeding and feed management practices; and iv) identification of research needs. Based on the information presented in the eleven case studies, ten specialist reviews and from other relevant publications, an overview paper presents concluding remarks and recommendations on some of the major issues and constraints in optimizing feed production, use and management.

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