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Agricultural based Livelihood Systems in Drylands in the Context of Climate Change - Inventory of Adaptation Practices and Technologies of Ethiopia







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    Article
    Promoting Terminalia brownii as a commercial indigenous tree species in drylands, East Africa
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Kenya’s forest cover is estimated at 7.4% of the land mass cover. Forests are important in ensuring biodiversity conservation and providing ecosystem goods and services, improving community livelihoods and national GDP. There is need to enhance afforestation and reforestation programmes to achieve the envisioned 10% tree cover target. However, this effort is constrained by climate change issues arising from unsustainable exploitation of wood for charcoal and firewood leading to the depletion of important tree species such as T. brownii. The domestication of T. brownii under agroforestry systems and other tree planting programmes are constrained by lack of adequate supply of superior and high quality seeds and seedlings, poor silvi-cultural management techniques, low rates of integration into smallholder agroforestry programs, limited knowledge on crop-tree interactions and lack of allometric models to estimate biomass yield and carbon stock. A multidisciplinary research project funded by the National Research Fund (NRF) is ongoing and is geared towards promoting the propagation and regeneration of T. brownii under agroforestry systems in the drylands of Kenya to mitigate climate change. A number of preliminary findings have been reported, such are; (1) Terminalia brownii fruits have mechanical dormancy imposed by the hard samara fruit and that extracted T. brownii seeds record a high percentage of above 80% under warm conditions; (2) germination of T. brownii fruits and seeds are significantly affected by fungal pathogens and insect pests; (3) five variables significantly influence the decision to domesticate T. brownii these are; education level of household head, importance of farm to the household income, access to credit, dependency ratio and intercropping; (4) studies on the spatial distribution and occurrence and development of allometric equation for estimating above and below-ground biomass of T. brownii in the drylands of Kenya are ongoing. Further assessment on growth performance have shown that T. brownii is generally fast growing; can attain an increase in height of (~1.0 m) and DGL (3.0 cm) annually, with significance difference in growth within and between provenances and that the it can withstand many other growth challenges despite the harsh weather conditions. These findings suggest that T. brownii is a promising tree species in agroforestry systems and afforestation in drylands and that there exist genetic variability among the available provenances thus the need to involve more stakeholders in seedling production and to embark on...... Key words: T. brownii, Commercial tree, growth performance, drylands of Kenya ID: 3623166
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    Article
    A multi-agency forest fire early warning system for environment and biodiversity preservation in Ethiopia
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Forest fires affect the population and livelihood of Ethiopians. They also contribute to deforestation, increasing soil erosion, loss of nutrients in the soil, reduction in biodiversity and animal habitats. Climate Change will play a key role in future Forest Fire scenarios. Ethiopian forests provide an important natural and economic resource, threatened by fires. Forestry is one of the main pillars of Ethiopia's Climate Resilient and Green Economy Strategy (2011). However, deforestation is a major concern: forest loss contributes to soil erosion, loss of soil nutrients, reduction in biodiversity and habitats. Climate projections indicate an increase in the frequency of fire occurrence and their severity, related to increase in temperature and rainfall variance. Forest fire management in Ethiopia involves multiple agencies. Among the key national institutions, there are EFCCC, the lead public entity responsible for forest management and protection; the National Meteorological Agency (NMA), responsible for collection of national weather data and weather forecasts; NDRMC, the national entity responsible for the Early Warning products in Ethiopia. UNDRR, with the financial support of the Government of Italy and the technical and scientific support of CIMA Research Foundation is implementing a Forest Fire EW System at national level, through the development of tools and multi agencies procedures, to reduce the socio-economic and environmental impacts of forest fires. The proposed framework comprises of the forest fires forecasting model RISICO, coupled with ad hoc training and the development of Standard Operating Procedures. This procedure culminates with the issuing of a Forest Fire EW Bulletin. Every step of this procedure is realized through the open-source web platform myDewetra. A pervasive stakeholder mapping in order to ensure cross-sectoral cooperation has been performed. In particular, EFCCC, NDRMC and NMA contribute actively to the generation and dissemination of the bulletin, while many other stakeholders help in the data collection. The overall structure improved national and local coordination mechanisms for Forest Fire EW, enhancing prevention and preparedness at the national scale. Keywords: Biodiversity conservation, Policies, Deforestation and forest degradation, Monitoring and data collection, Sustainable forest management. ID: 3624013
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    Analysis of Climate Change and Variability Risks in the Smallholder Sector
    Case studies of the Laikipia and Narok Districts representing major agro‑ecological zones in Kenya
    2010
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    Smallholder farmers in Kenya grow most of the country's food, vegetables and fruit. These farmers face formidable challenges in increasing production, preserving natural resources and addressing the impact of climate change in food production systems. Meeting these challenges is vital to sustained livelihoods and reduction of poverty, especially in the fragile dryland and semi-arid areas, where the impact of climate change is expected to be severe in Eastern Africa and Kenya. It will severely ef fect the approximately 57 percent of Kenya's population already living in poverty and who are reliant on climate-sensitive economic activities under smallholder agriculture. This study aims to raise awareness at national and local level on the impacts of climate change and variability on the food production system, natural resources base (land, water, forest and biodiversity) and ecosystem integrity, including establishment of baseline information at both local and agro-ecological levels. It also highlights on-the-ground adaptation practices and technologies which can stabilize the productivity of vulnerable communities and enhance ecosystem resilience for possible up-scaling.

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