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Research implications of adopting the precautionary approach to management of tuna fisheries.









FAO. Research implications of adopting the precautionary approach to management of tuna fisheries. FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 963. Rome, FAO. 2001. 74p.


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    Stock assessment approach for the Napoleon fish, Cheilinus undulatus, in Indonesia
    A tool for quotasetting for data-poor fisheries under CITES Appendix II Non-Detriment Finding requirements.
    2007
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    A stock assessment approach for the Napoleon fish (humphead wrasse), Cheilinus undulatus, is presented as a tool for determining sustainable catch levels of the species. The model was developed primarily for application in Indonesia and in collaboration with the Research Center for Oceanography, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). The model can be adapted for estimating sustainable catch levels in other countries, if suitable estimates of reef area and fish densities are available . The approach is composed of a population model and a method for estimating stock density based on underwater visual surveys, allows for the representation of "grow out" of net-caged animals, a significant part of the trade, includes the ability to account for uncertainty in most of the parameters of the model, and can compute a sustainable catch (and its associated uncertainty) corresponding to a user-specified level of fishing mortality. The resultant model is implemented using Micros oft EXCEL and Visual Basic, with a graphical user interface for easy use (the EXCEL spreadsheet is included in the CD-Rom provided with this Fisheries Circular). Sustainable fishing mortality rates for the species in Indonesia can be estimated based on commonly used biological reference points (e.g. FMSY; F20%). Results of sensitivity tests indicated that the relationship between stock and recruitment remains the major uncertainty affecting the estimation of sustainable fishing rates. Preliminary estimates of export quotas for Indonesia are provided taking into account the official statistics on the volume of domestic catches and estimated illegal and unreported exports. Estimated export quotas were highly sensitive to the estimated habitat area suitable for the species, which highlights the need for more accurate estimates of reef habitat areas in Indonesia. Quotas depend heavily on successful implementation and are one of several possible approaches to achieving sustainable exports of a CITES Appendix II listed species.
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    Book (series)
    Precautionary approach to capture fisheries and species introductions 1996
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    Starting from Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration (UNCED, 1992), the document proposes a definition of the precautionary approach to fisheries as well as an elaboration on the burden of proof. It also contains detailed guidelines on how to conduct fishery management and research and how to develop and transfer fishery technology in a context of uncertainty and responsible fisheries. Guidelines are also provided on species introduction, voluntary or accidental (including through balla st water and sediment discharge), recognizing the difficulty of ensuring a precautionary approach in relation to that issue. The guidelines are aimed at the governments, fisheries authorities, fishery industry, regional fishery management bodies, NGOs and other interested parties, in order to: (a) raise their awareness about the need for precaution in fisheries, by providing them with background information on the main issues and implications, and (b) provide practical guidance on ho w to apply such precaution.
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    Book (series)
    The state of world highly migratory, straddling and other high seas fishery resources and associated species 2006
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    This document describes highly migratory fish stocks, straddling fish stocks, and stocks of other high seas fishery resources and the fisheries for them, including information on their state of exploitation. Fisheries for highly migratory species are important in all oceans and semi-enclosed seas, except for polar regions. Fisheries for straddling fish stocks are much more localized, primarily occurring in a few regions where continental shelves extend beyond the 200 miles Exclusive Economic Zon e while most fisheries for other high seas fishery resources are deep-water fisheries. Formal assessments are lacking for most of the stocks examined. Nevertheless, the compilation of available assessments and FAO’s analyses indicate that about 30 percent of the stocks of highly migratory tuna and tuna-like species, more than 50 percent of the highly migratory oceanic sharks and nearly two-thirds of the straddling stocks and the stocks of other high seas fishery resources are overexploited or de pleted. The stocks concerned represent only a small fraction of the world fishery resources, but are key indicators of the state of an overwhelming part of the ocean ecosystem which appears to be more overexploited than EEZs. The scarcity of the information available and the short time elapsed since the entering into force of the UN Fish Stock Agreement does not allow for a realistic assessment of the impact it may have had on the state of the various fish stocks being exploited in the high seas . Some key issues on which progress and improvements are needed are addressed, including those regarding fisheries in the high seas for resources other than straddling stocks and highly migratory species.

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