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Agriculture at the UN climate change talks

Bonn, Germany, 4-15 June 2014









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    Book (stand-alone)
    Report of the Policy Harmonization Dialogue, Malawi
    Report on the Policy Dialogue between Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Management and Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, Wamkulu Palace Hotel, Lilongwe, 20th August 2013
    2013
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    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN in partnership with the Government of Malawi through its Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MoAFS) and with financial support from the European Commission, is implementing the project “Climate-Smart Agriculture: capturing the synergies among mitigation, adaptation and food security” . The project intends to contribute towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals number 1 and 7, which focuses on Eradicating Extreme Pover ty and Hunger and ensuring environmental sustainability as well as Article 2 of the UNFCCC. In addition to Malawi, the project is also being implemented in Zambia and Viet Nam1. It has four expected outcomes which include the following: ï‚· An evidence base for developing and implementing policies and investments for climate smart agriculture is built in the three countries; ï‚· Country-owned strategic frameworks for climate smart agricultural activities are formulated; ï‚· Climate smart a griculture investment proposals are formulated and possible financing, including from climate finance is identified; and ï‚· Capacity for evidence-based planning, implementing and financing climate smart agriculture is built. In line with the objectives of the project, a policy dialogue workshop was organized between MoAFS and MoECCM and other stakeholders to discuss how linkages between climate change and agriculture might be captured in a harmonized way in agricultural and climate change pol icies. The national agricultural policy will seek to mainstream climate change, while the national climate change policy addresses climate change as a cross-cutting issue, with a section of the policy devoted agriculture. The workshop was attended by over 24 participants from the two ministries, civil society organizations(CSOs) and academia.
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    Potential conflicts between agricultural trade rules and climate change treaty commitments.
    The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets (SOCO) 2018: Background paper
    2018
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    Climate change – among its many other challenges – also affects the conditions of competition along the whole food value chain. This article posits that many mitigation and adaptation policies imply a differentiation between otherwise identical products but with different carbon footprints. Where imports are affected, there is a potential for trade frictions. The main issue appears to be a climate-smart treatment of like products with different (non-product-related) production and processing methods (ppm). Now that national governments start implementing their commitments under the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, they have to closely look at the trade and investment impact of their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). The NDCs presently available remain silent on concrete measures involving product differentiation according to footprint differences, be it by way of border adjustment measures, subsidies, prohibitions, or restrictions. The non-discrimination principle enshrined in the multilateral trading system can be a problem for such differentiations. No climate-smart agricultural measures have yet been notified to the World Trade Organization (WTO). But several renewable energy programmes have been found to violate WTO rules. Potential problems could arise, for instance, from differentiating tariffs, import restrictions or taxes according to carbon footprint. Conditions of competition might even be affected by labels signalling products with a bigger (or a “climate-friendly”) footprint, or through subsidies and incentives compensating domestic producers subject to emissions reductions, prohibitions, and input restrictions. A second major problem lies in the way the Paris Agreement and the WTO address the Development Dimension. In the Paris Agreement, the Development Dimension is addressed by the notion of Common but Differentiated Responsibility (CBDR), leaving Parties free in terms of how they take development into account in their NDCs. On the other side, the Special and Differentiated Treatment (SDT) foreseen in all WTO agreements for developing country products and services appears incapable of dealing with the global impact of all emissions, regardless of their origin, or with the negative impact on developing country exports to climate-smart markets in developed countries. In conclusion, we suggest that a review of the climate-relevant trade and investment rules is necessary at the international level, involving climate, and agriculture and trade regulators, supported by scientific, economic and legal expertise. The purpose of this review is to avoid litigation jeopardising the implementation of the Paris Agreement. At the same time, such a review must be comprehensive, because the objective is to ensure maximum policy space for climate mitigation and adaptation without negatively affecting other countries, or unduly restricting trade and investment, especially in poor developing countries. Last but not least, this intergovernmental and inter-institutional review is urgent, because the results should provide as quickly as possible the legal security necessary for investors and operators, regulators, NDC developments and reviews, and international standard-setting processes.
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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in action: from concepts to investments
    Dedicated training for task managers of the Islamic Development Bank
    2019
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    In October 2019, the IsDB and FAO Regional Office for the Near East and North Africa partnered to deliver the first Regional Workshop on Climate-Smart Agriculture in the NENA region. The IsDB now aims to ensure that all their offices are aware of CSA and are able to make investments that meaningfully take CSA and its principles into account. In so doing, they aim to enhance the capacity of the agricultural systems to support food security, incorporating the need for adaptation and the potential for mitigation into sustainable agriculture development strategies. FAO is proud to bring the four-day training on CSA to the IsDB’s Staff: Climate-Smart Agriculture in action: from concepts to investments, to support the development of climate-smart agricultural investment projects in the IsDB’s focus countries, especially through its Climate Change and Agricultural policies. This training booklet contains core information from the training, including but not limited to: learning objectives, learning materials, and key CSA Sourcebook Chapters. The training booklet also provides useful links to additional learning resources, as well as key FAO publications for future reference.

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