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A regional approach to the implementation of the Rotterdam Convention (2007-2008)










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    Strengthening capacities to address harmful pesticides: how the Rotterdam Convention is working in Latin America 2018
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    This brochure describes a series of projects carried out in Colombia, Panama, Dominican Republic and Honduras during 2013-2017 to improve their implementation of the Rotterdam Convention and notably their response to incidents involving severely hazardous pesticide formulations (SHPFs). The projects were planned and run by the countries themselves, with technical support from the Rotterdam Secretariat. All four countries are Parties to the Convention, and the goal was to help them fulfil the resulting obligations. The technical support gave the countries a better understanding of the problem, enhanced the capacities of the personnel engaged in the different activities, and introduced better technologies, such as digital surveillance systems and mobile applications to improve the recording of data on pesticide incidents.
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    Guide on the Development of National Laws to Implement the Rotterdam Convention 2005
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    This Guide is designed as a reference document and training tool to assist in the development of national laws to implement the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade.
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    Comparative Analysis of Organic and Non-Organic Farming Systems: A Critical Assessment of Farm Profitability 2009
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    Organic agriculture has triggered a controversial debate in the last decades, most importantly because it shed light on the darker sides of chemical-intensive conventional farming by offering an alternative. By now, there is a strong body of evidence showing that organic farming is more environmentally friendly: potential benefits from organic production arise from improved soil fertility, organic matter content and biological activity; better soil structure and reduced susceptibility to erosion; reduced pollution from nutrient leaching and pesticides; and improved plant and animal biodiversity (Kasperczyk and Knickel, 2006). As more and more attention has been put on determining whether organic systems are environmentally better or not, it is not clear whether organic agriculture could be economically attractive enough to trigger wide spread adoption. If organic farming offered a better environmental quality, and potentially healthier foods, but not sufficient econ omic returns to the majority of farmers, it would obviously remain a luxury way of food production available to a very tiny fraction of farmers. However, the continued growth of organically managed lands worldwide, especially in developing countries, does not support this hypothesis. The number of studies devoted to the question of how profitable organic agriculture is when compared to non-organic management is over hundred; however long-term studies analyzing the development of prof its in comparative studies are much less numerous. Regrettably, the geographical distribution of these studies is very much biased towards developed countries (mainly U.S.A) and certain cash crops (e.g. corn, soy, wheat). Still, a general trend can be identified when considering economic comparisons made in the last three decades. The aim of this paper is to analyze existing literature on the economic performance of organic versus conventional (defined as non-organic) farms, to determi ne the critical factors for success in the evaluation of organic agriculture in different socio-political settings, and to offer some critical insights into how comparative studies differ. Only studies using data from certified organic farms have been considered, covering a minimum of three years (for developed countries) after conversion and undertaken after 1980 (see Appendix). Due to the lack of availability of long-term economic studies in developing countries, the minimum length r equirement was not taken rigidly and studies covering one and two years have also been included from these countries. Studies evaluating yields and certain production costs, but not analyzing profits were not considered. Although an effort was made to compile as many available economic studies as possible, the list in the Appendix is not exhaustive.

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