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Soil Survey and Land Classification, Republic of Yemen. Land suitability for irrigated sorghum (Seifi) in Wadi Mawr (Tihama).

Technical Note 8.








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    Project
    Land Resource Study of Hodeidah Green Belt Area.
    Field document 12.
    1997
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    In this report the results are presented from the soil survey carried out in the Green Belt area around Al-Hodeidah. This report covers the relevant parts of the Tihama coastal plain, including part of the wadi Siham alluvial plain. A soil map, land use map, vegetation map and physiographic map, all at a scale of 1 : 50.000, were prepared. The total area covered is approximately 15200 ha, situated in a half circle around Hodeidah city. The soils are in general homogeneous with little pedogenetic development, and variable degrees of salinity and sodium content. Apart from the more sandy soils that generally cover the coastal plain, the flood irrigated alluvial parts have more loamy textures. These soils have a low organic matter content, moderate fertility and a moderate internal drainage. The quality of groundwater used for irrigation is poor with high levels of sodium. The soil map indicates that about 25% of the area is occupied by active duneland, and another 35% consists of flat an d hummocky sandy areas affected by shifting sands. These areas are used mainly for grazing. A considerable part of the survey area (about 40%) is used for traditional rainfed and irrigated farming by mainly small scale farmers.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Country Study on Status of Land Tenure, Planning and Management in Oriental Near East Countries
    Case of Lebanon
    2012
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    The report deals with land tenure issues in Lebanon and analyzes major problems facing sustainable agriculture in view of natural setting, prevailing practices and existing legislation. Lebanon consists mainly of rugged mountainous regions with slopping and steep lands. The population of Lebanon in 2007 was 4 million with 407,362 residing in Beirut, the administrative capital of Lebanon. One of the main problems in land tenure and land management issues is the cadastre where a significant part o f Lebanon is still outside the cadastre (North Bekaa, East Mountains). Based on rainfall amount and land occupation, Lebanon was divided into five large regions and twelve agro climatic zones. Lebanese agriculture is divided into seven agro-climatic regions with 40 homogeneous agricultural areas (Lebanese Agricultural Atlas, MoA, 2005). The land use map of Lebanon published by CDR (SDATL, 2003) showed that the major agricultural areas are located in the Bekaa followed by the Akkar plain and Sout h Lebanon. Agricultural land use in Lebanon might be represented by three main cropping patterns, vegetables monoculture, wheat potato rotation and land under permanent crops - fruit trees or grape production. The total cultivated land area in Lebanon in 2007 was 277,000 ha (27 percent of the total land area), of which about 50 percent was irrigated. Irrigation water in the country is still primitively managed. According to national irrigation experts, the majority of watered lands in Lebanon (6 7%) are irrigated by gravity feed systems (furrows). The report reviews state policy in the management of soil and water resources, challenges, responses and assess the constraints and interventions for sustainable land management highlighting the best practices. Specifically, the report reviews works on how to promote water saving using drip irrigation, disseminate good practices like conservation agriculture, integrated pest management and organic farming. It presents the important role the gr een plan is playing to help farmers in land reformation, road building, land cleaning, water reservoirs construction, and discuss the promulgation of laws that protect agricultural land and encourage the construction on rocky terrains. The report analyzes the chemical, physical and biological land degradation including water pollution and water scarcity, soil erosion, soil salinity, soil sealing and rangeland deterioration. It also discusses the direct and indirect causes of land degradation inc luding the geomorphology of Lebanon, the mismanagement of fertilizer and water input in agriculture, current quarrying practices, deforestation, chaotic urban expansion on the account of productive soils, land use change, overgrazing. It also prospects the conservation practices and governmental control.
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    Book (series)
    Guidelines and computer programs for the planning and design of land drainage systems 2007
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    Drainage of agricultural land is one of the most critical water management tools for the sustainability of productive cropping systems, as frequently this sustainability is extremely dependent on the control of waterlogging and soil salinization in the rootzone of most crops. On some agricultural lands, the natural drainage is sufficient to maintain high productivity. However, many others require improvements in surface and subsurface drainage in order to optimize land productivity, wh ile maintaining the quality of soil resources. As time passes, drainage requirements may change because of changes in the general socio-economic conditions, such as input and output prices, and more intensive crop rotations.

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