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From nature-negative to nature-positive production

A conceptual and practical framework for agriculture based on thermodynamics









Ferri, M. & Arnés García, M. 2023. From nature-negative to nature-positive production A conceptual and practical framework for agriculture based on thermodynamics. Budapest, FAO. 



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    Guidelines on the Implementation of Nature-based Solutions (NbS) to Combat the Negative Impact of Climate Change on Forestry
    Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Türkiye, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
    2023
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    Climate change is one of the most critical social and environmental concerns and the biggest threat to economic stability in human history. Türkiye, Azerbaijan, and Central Asia countries, namely Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Although average forest cover is only 10.2 percent of these countries (FAO-SEC countries), they play an essential role in climate change mitigation and adaptation, including human well-being and biodiversity co-benefits. The NbS concept has gained attention since the late 2000s. Its practical contribution to global climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts has found significant implementation opportunities in forestry to support the protection and conservation, restoration and expansion, and sustainable management of forests under the impact of climate change. Globally, implementing NbSs to combat the negative impact of climate change on forestry is promoted by the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Paris Agreement, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Regionally, implementing NbSs to combat the negative impacts of climate change on forestry has been included in the forest policy initiatives of the countries in the sub-region recently. As a result, governments have implemented NbSs through national strategies and programs to address societal challenges by enhancing ecosystem services and promoting human well-being and biodiversity co-benefits. For example, Azerbaijan has implemented afforestation, reforestation, rehabilitation, and restoration activities in forest fund lands on an average of 9 727 hectares (ha) annually since 2000. Kazakhstan aims to save the Aral Sea basin from salinity and improve soil fertility through afforestation activities of saxaul species on 0.25 million ha, and the afforestation area in the Aral Sea will be extended by 1 million ha till 2025. Kyrgyzstan has planned a 1,000-ha annual plantation program to expand protected natural areas to 10 percent. Tajikistan implements 2,000 ha of annual plantation activities to increase the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential through participatory forestry sector development. Türkiye implemented afforestation, soil conservation, forest rehabilitation, pasture rehabilitation, private afforestation, artificial regeneration, and establishment of energy forests activities on 9.62 million ha from 1946 to 2022. Turkmenistan conducts afforestation activities with drought-resistant plant species and established the "Golden Century Lake" in the Karakum Desert to improve the climate conditions and conserve biodiversity. Uzbekistan declared the Aral Sea region
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    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    We have reviewed the consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services from the industrial-scale extraction of loresidues (tops, branches and stumps from harvested trees and small-diameter trees from thinnings) in managed forests. Logging residue extraction can be used in place of fossil fuels, and thus contribute to climate change mitigation. However, the additional biomass and nutrients removed, and soils and other structures disturbed, have several potential environmental impacts. We found 279 scientific papers that compared logging residue extraction with non-extraction, the majority of which were conducted in Northern Europe and North America. It has been found that logging residue extraction can have significant negative effects on biodiversity, especially for species naturally adapted to sun-exposed conditions and the large amounts of dead wood that are created by large-scaled forest disturbances. Slash extraction may also pose risks for future biomass production, due to the associated loss of nutrients. For water quality, reindeer herding, mammalian game species, berries, and natural heritage the results were complicated by primarily negative but some positive effects, while for recreation and pest control positive effects were more consistent. Further, there are initial negative effects on carbon storage, but these effects are transient and carbon stocks are mostly restored over decadal time perspectives. Some of the negative effects can be decreased by avoiding extraction of certain categories of residues, and forest type targeted for extraction: for instance, to minimize risks for biodiversity stump harvesting should be a low level, but for future biomass production slash extraction should be avoided in certain forest types. Compensatory measures for logging residue extraction may also be used (e.g. ash recycling, liming, fertilization), though these may also be associated with adverse environmental impacts. Keywords: Sustainable forest management, Climate change, Biodiversity conservation ID: 3622074
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    Nature based solutions (NBS) in agriculture and food systems encompass people centred and regenerative approaches targeted at restoring, sustainably managing and conserving the natural capital needed to buffer food systems and the livelihoods dependent upon them against shocks and crises, while supporting the achievement of sustainable development, climate and biodiversity goals. Considering the potential benefits to be derived from their application, a concerted effort is needed to scale up and optimize the use of NBS, integrating them into wider food system risk management, development and climate action strategies, such as disaster risk reduction, adaptation and mitigation. To support countries in optimizing the use of agricultural NBS, the project supported the development of a multidisciplinary diagnostic, planning and monitoring framework for investments at local and national levels. The tool aims to support countries to conduct better landscape planning and to mainstream issues of natural capital, ecosystem services and biodiversity into planning and investment decision making.

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