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Tilapia lake virus disease strategy manual












Tang, K.F.J., Bondad-Reantaso, M.G., Surachetpong, W., Dong, H.T., Fejzic, N., Wang, Q., Wajsbrot, N. & Hao, B. 2021. Tilapia lake virus disease strategy manual. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular No. 1220. Rome, FAO.




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    Project
    Strengthening Capacities to Ensure Healthy and Sustainable Tilapia Aquaculture Production - GCP/RAF/510/MUL 2024
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    Tilapia is an affordable source of aquatic protein for many millions of people worldwide. Both cultured and wild tilapia stocks are currently threatened by an emerging disease caused by the Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV), the impact of which is likely to jeopardize the livelihoods and economic situation of dependent fisherfolk. As the second most important cultured finfish worldwide, after cyprinids, losses in its production, due to epizootic-level disease outbreaks, could be disastrous for global food security and nutrition.Capacity-building is therefore essential to assist tilapia-producing countries (including the competent authorities, producers and academic sectors), especially in Africa, to enhance biosecurity governance and knowledge to deal with TiLV, in particular its pathology, diagnostics and surveillance, as well as emergency preparedness and contingency plans, farm-level biosecurity and good tilapia husbandry practices. The two main objectives of the project were to (i) strengthen aquaculture biosecurity governance and knowledge and capacities on TiLV through national action plans (NAPs) and (ii) to exchange of knowledge and establish networking support to aquaculture biosecurity and aquatic animal health (AAH) management.
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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Enhancing national and regional capacities to deal with Tilapia lake virus 2019
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    Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is a recently described disease affecting wild and farmed tilapines. Tilapias are farmed globally and are the second most important aquaculture species in terms of volumes produced, providing a key source of affordable animal protein, income to fish farmers and fishers, and domestic and export earnings. Infection with TiLV has caused extremely variable mortalities (ranging from 0 to 90 percent ) and may pose a great threat to the tilapia sector. The virus was first recognized in Israel in 2011 and was assumed to be linked to previously unexplained outbreaks in Israel in 2009. At present, it has been reported in three continents (Asia, Africa and South America) and the number of countries where the agent has been detected is likely to increase rapidly as a result of increased awareness, surveillance and availability of diagnostic methods. While there is no public health concern for this pathogen, there is a significant risk of TiLV being translocated both inter- and intra-continentally through the movement of infected live tilapias in the absence of appropriate biosecurity measures. FAO monitors TiLV, provides technical assistance and works with FAO member governments and their constituents as well as development partners and searches for resources to support the tilapia sector and the communities dependent on it.
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    Book (series)
    Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV)
    Expert Knowledge Elicitation (EKE) Risk Assessment
    2018
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    The experts who participated in the expert knowledge elicitation (EKE) risk assessment concluded that Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) represents a significant risk to most parts of the world, especially to those countries where tilapia aquaculture or fisheries is important from both food security and commercial perspective. The experts considered that the main risk pathway is the translocation of live fish (for aquaculture, direct human consumption or ornamental/aquarium fish keeping purposes. The experts are of the view that the role of trade in uncooked, chilled/frozen whole fish and fish products (such as fillets) as a pathway for disease spread when compared to live fish pathway was considered to be comparatively small. The risk of TiLV to Pacific island countries and territories and North America were generally considered less than the risk ot TiLV to Asia, Africa and South America, both in terms of lower likelihood of entry, establishment and spread, and associated consequences. The experts considered that of the sixteen potential measures presented (divided into: (1) movement restrictions, (2) surveillance, (3) basic biosecurity at farm level, and (4) emergency preparedness and response), movement restriction to be the most effective in managing the international spread of TiLV. Measures may include: the prohibition of live tilapia imports; sourcing live tilapia only from populations tested and certified TiLV-free; and quarantine and post arrival testing of imported live tilapia.

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