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Alternative sea lice strategies in Norway










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    Biological control of gastro-intestinal nematodes of ruminants using predacious fungi 1998
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    Gastro-intestinal nematode parasitism is one of the most important disease constraints to small ruminant production in the sub-tropics and tropics control of the gastro-intestinal nematodes particularly Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus species is a prerequisite for profitable small ruminant production. Strategies for the control have up till now relied almost entirely on the use of anthelmintics. The frequent use, often combined with mismanagement of the drugs, have led to wide-spread r esistance of the parasites to one or more of the major groups of anthelmintics. There is, therefore, an urgent need for developing alternative sustainable strategies. These include grazing management, breeding for resistance/resilience, better utilization of existing drugs through the understanding of the pharmacokinetics and the use of predacious fungi for biological control of the nematode parasite larvae on pasture. FAO in collaboration with the Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology and the Veterinary Research Institute in Ipoh, Malaysia organized a workshop on Biological Control of Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes of Ruminants Using Predacious Fungi held 5 - 12 October 1997 in Ipoh, Malaysia. Fourteen participants from 10 countries received theoretical and practical training in the isolation, identification and cultivation of predacious fungi enabling them to utilize biological control of parasitic nematodes of ruminants in the future.
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    Expert consultation on the sustainable management of parasites in livestock challenged by the global emergence of resistance
    Part 2: African animal trypanosomosis and drug resistance: a challenge to progressive, sustainable disease control
    2022
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    African animal trypanosomosis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by tsetse flies and other vectors in 37 African countries. Affecting livestock health and welfare, the disease imposes a heavy burden on communities that rely on domestic animals for their livelihoods. In most endemic areas, trypanosomosis control relies heavily on trypanocidal drugs, which are often the only tool farmers possess to manage the problem. Unfortunately, the few veterinary medicines to treat or prevent the disease are old and outdated, and their efficacy is challenged by the emergence and spread of resistant trypanosome strains. FAO convened experts to discuss how to control African animal trypanosomosis progressively and sustainably in the face of drug resistance. FAO organized the meeting in the framework of an Expert Consultation on the sustainable management of parasites in livestock challenged by the global emergence of resistance. The experts of animal trypanosomosis warned that over 17 countries in Africa have reported treatment failure possibly resulting from trypanocidal drug resistance, which hampers disease control and negatively affects food security and livelihoods. Several factors contribute to the emergence and spread of trypanocidal drug resistance, including drug overuse and misuse, the circulation of fake or substandard products and weak controls along the supply chains. The meeting recommended that national authorities should promote the quality control of trypanocides, raise awareness of rational drug use and strengthen data collection and surveillance. FAO and the other organizations of the Tripartite should develop and disseminate guidelines and best practices, provide a platform for technical and scientific discussions, and they should support advocacy, awareness and resource mobilization at the international level. Academic institutions should improve our understanding of the mechanisms and drivers of resistance and develop more effective tools to monitor and curb the spread of the problem.
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    Shrimp acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease strategy manual 2020
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    The contents of this Shrimp acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease strategy manual provides information and guidance relevant to the development of policies to respond to outbreaks of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in farmed marine shrimp. The etiologic agents for AHPND are virulent strains of bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related species, which harbor specific toxin genes. While these bacterial species are part of the normal microflora of the marine environment, they may cause substantial mortalities in whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) and giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) cultured in countries in Asia and the Americas. These strains of these Vibrio bacteria secrete a PirABvp binary toxin resulting in sloughing of tubule epithelial cells and dysfunctions of the hepatopancreas in the acute form; mortality can reach 100 percent in affected ponds. Chronic presentation of this disease involves secondary bacterial infection of hepatopancreas and running mortality over the culture cycle. Acute or chronic presentation would greatly depend on the culture conditions. This disease can be considered a toxicosis rather than an infection. Economic losses due to this disease have amounted to over USD 7 billion annually. Further outbreaks of AHPND, particularly in areas that are currently free of the disease, would be expected to experience similar devastating effects on local shrimp producers and the surrounding communities; and thus, there is an urgent need to develop a contingency plan to control and eradicate this disease. This manual includes information on: 1) the nature of AHPND: a brief review of current knowledge in disease etiology, susceptible species and global distribution; 2) diagnosis of disease: a description of gross clinical signs and laboratory methods; 3) prevention and treatment: farm management, the use and development of antibiotics, bacteriophages, probiotics, disease-tolerant shrimp, shrimp immunity and vaccination; 4) epidemiology: AHPND’s geographic distribution, genotype, persistence in the environment, reservoir hosts, modes of transmission, risk factors, and economic impacts; 5) principles of control and eradication: methods for containment, mitigation and eradication of AHPND, and trade and industry considerations; and 6) policy development and implementation: AHPND-specific objectives, options and strategies for eradication and control, education, capacity building, funding, and compensation.

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