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Development of National Agricultural Engineering Policy and Strategy - TCP/GHA/3603









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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Seychelles 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. Seychelles is a small island state in the western Indian Ocean, which has developed a high-income economy and eliminated extreme poverty. Agriculture contributes about 2.2% of the country’s gross domestic product with tourism and the fisheries and seafood industries serving as the main pillars of the economy. Agricultural land occupies about 3.4% of the total land area of the country. A large portion of the land area (88.4%) is covered by forest mainly natural and established plantations for commercial purposes. Seychelles is divided into two large agro-climatic zones based on biophysical characteristics- mountainous/forest zone high ground and coastal plateau. In terms of agriculture, two agroecological zones can be distinguished mainly based on soil: upland and sandy soil. Main cropping systems includes food crop-based systems and perennial crop-based systems. Livestock production include goat, pig and chicken. Most crop production is under rainfed or irrigation system. Most farms are under 2 ha with backyard farming done to supplement household food or income. The main crops and products include coconut, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potato, cassava, banana and tuna. Seychelles has the highest rate of overweight and obesity in Africa due to the shift from predominantly unprocessed traditional foods to a more westernised dietary intake consisting mainly of refined and processed foods. most greenhouse gas (GHG) emission come from the energy sector, followed by waste and agriculture which contributes 0.79% of the total. Seychelles has outlined in its nationally determined contributions mitigation actions in the forestry, energy and transport, and waste sectors. In agriculture, actions to mitigate climate change include: promotion of agricultural practises such as agroforestry which would involve mainstreaming strategies to limit deforestation and increase the sink capacity of forests. Challenges for the agricultural sector include (i) deforestation and unsuccessful intensification, (ii) uncontrolled urbanisation, land clearing, bush fires and population pressure, and (iii) high reliance on food imports. Agriculture in Seychelles is limited by a lack of arable land and extreme rainfall patterns and meteorological events like tropical storms, floods and droughts. Climate change poses serious challenges to the country such as uncontrolled economic and social consequences of floods, land degradation, sea-level rise, coastal erosion, declining agricultural yields, health vulnerability, and increased occurrence of drought. CSA technologies and practises present opportunities for addressing climate change challenges as well as for economic growth and development of the agriculture sector. Identified CSA practises in use in the country include: crop production under shade houses, inter cropping, use of organic manure and mulch, use of weather information, water control through irrigation, anti-erosion arrangement, windbreak and shelter, and use of climate-adapted seeds. Seychelles has several key institutions and policies aimed at supporting and increasing agriculture productivity and advancing CSA practises. These include government ministries and agency structures of ministries, firms operating in the agricultural sector, academic institutions, specialised laboratories and agricultural research institutes and training centres. The Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change (MEECC) serving as the country’s UNFCCC focal point and nationally designated authority to the Green Climate Fund is responsible for country’s climate change plans and policies. On the agriculture front the ministry of agriculture and fisheries is the key government institution for partnerships for climate-smart agriculture work in the communities as well as for policy and investment related issues through the national agricultural investment plan. A number of csa-related policies and strategies have been developed: National Programme on climate change strategy, national strategy for disaster risk management, national biodiversity strategy and action plan and the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into the country’s strategic plan- a definitive document intended to guide land-use management up to the year 2040. A number of projects that foster the development of knowledge and evidence on the effectiveness of climate smart agriculture in improving food security, mitigating climate change and improving the adaptive capacities of production systems and populations in Seychelles have received support from various donors and financing schemes. In addition, AfDB, COMESA, FAO, EU, IFAD, etc. have invested hugely in several aspects of the climate/agricultural sector of Seychelles which also include the development and promotion of csa innovations. From various sources of climate finance available internationally, Seychelles is currently eligible for only a limited number of these and has not wholly accessed major funding instruments such as the Green Climate Fund and Adaptation Fund. The county is a small island nation whose prospects rely heavily on external demand, especially tourism. This poses major challenges for diversification and resilience. Its commitment to csa is relatively new with limited institutions and sources of funding.
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    Rice value chain in Ghana – Prospective analysis and strategies for sustainable and pro-poor growth 2021
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    Based on past experience of partnership on support to National Rice Development Strategies (NRDS) within Coalition for African Rice Development (CARD), AfricaRice and FAO decided to conduct a series of rice policy reviews for Ghana, Ivory Coast and Mali in 2019. The following study uses the Ex-ante Carbon-balance Value Chain tool (EX-ACT VC), developed in 2016 by FAO, to assess the Ghanaian rice value chain’s environmental (in terms of climate mitigation and climate resilience) and socio-economic impact for a business as usual scenario in 2020 compared to a growth scenario for 2030. Promotion of good agricultural practices (GAP), the reduction of crop losses, and an increase in the use of inputs and mechanization are the different strategies considered in this study that would help in realizing the aim of self-sufficiency. Through the implementation of these practices, along with the expansion of rice growing areas, the income per day of work per farmer would increase by more than USD 4, reaching approx. USD 9/day of work in the value chain. The gross production value of the rice value chain would reach USD 856 million, which is an additional USD 511 million in gross production value by 2030. An upgraded rice value chain would also result in an increase in the value added by USD 378 million by 2030 with an overall positive carbon balance that would emit 284 852 tCO2-e of greenhouse gas emissions.
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    Document
    Rice-fish farming: a development lever for smallholder farming in Madagascar 2014
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    Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world and one of the top three countries considered the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change exacerbated by deforestation, natural disasters, chronic poverty, a high dependency on agriculture and a lack of adaptability. Madagascar ranks 154th (out of 185 countries) in the Human Development Index (UNDP 2015), having dropped 19 places between 2010 and 2014 reflecting a difficult internal economic, political and social situation. In fact , according to international thresholds, the poverty rate is 91 per cent (INSTAT/ENSOMD 2012- 2013). According to the national poverty line, 71.5 per cent of Malagasy people are poor and 52.7 per cent are extremely poor, meaning that their resources do not allow them to meet their basic food needs. Poverty in Madagascar is predominantly a rural phenomenon mainly affecting farmers, given that almost 77 per cent of the working population is involved in agriculture. Poverty also comes with another reality, that of the prominence of malnutrition. More than 40 per cent of infant mortality is caused by malnutrition; 47.3 per cent of children under the age of five suffer from acute malnutrition and the overall rate of acute malnutrition is 8.3 per cent (INSTAT/ENSOMD 2012-2013). Chronic malnutrition in children results in irreversible delays in physical and cognitive growth that are part of the vicious circle of poverty. Madagascar lost 14.5 per cent of its gross national product in 2013 beca use of malnutrition, amounting to 1,533.6 million US dollars and 66 per cent of working-age adults (15-64 years) suffered from stunting as a child, representing 8,287,508 people who were unable to reach their true potential1. In response to this challenge a project was launched in 2014 aimed at accelerating the spread of carp aquaculture2 in the rice fields of Madagascar’s Highlands (rice-fish culture) in the regions of Haute Matsiatra, Vakinankaratra, Itasy and Amoron’i Mania. The immediate obj ective of this project is to develop an innovative, inexpensive and far-reaching training circuit in rural areas. Secondary objectives are to both reduce household poverty by providing a source of income and contributing to the reduction of malnutrition through a targeted increase in the availability and consumption of fish. Rice-fish integration makes it possible to optimize the use of land and water resources, in addition to other available facilities, with little investment by combining the p roduction of plant and animal products. Ricefish farming can increase rice yields by 10 to 30 per cent and produce fish with an average yield of 205 kg/ha. In Madagascar, the actual production of fish in rice fields is an estimated 3-5,000 MT per year, but this could go up to 30 to 50,000 MT per year in 30 years with the expected impacts of combatting malnutrition and rural poverty.

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