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Rangeland degradation and socio-economic changes among the Bedu of Jordan: results of the 1995 IFAD Survey









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    Degradation of tribal forest-ecosystem and food insecurity among Kutia Kondh tribe of Odisha - a major concern in the 21st century
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Tribal People look after their forest in such a way no one can’t as they depend solely on forest for their livelihood, also they worship their forest as God. One such tribe called Kutia Kondha of Odisha (specially located in Kalahandi & Bolangir districts) protect the forest since ages and due to their indigenous agricultural practice(Podu cultivation) they are able to grow nutritious grains and other food. Their practice helps to conserve the agro ecosystem as well as forest ecosystem, but due to intervention of Government and other agencies they fear their forest will no longer sustain and their livelihood is in stake so also their food security because of massive Teak plantation programme. When the whole World is focusing on Food security measures, at this juncture the tribal forest ecosystem on which the tribal people depends for the NTFP for their sustenance is being destroyed in the name of “Development” which is the dark side of Sustainability campaign. Scientifically, due to such programme the nutritious grains like Millets which are majorly grown by tribal can’t be grown henceforth which is the major concern as they are now start eating poisonous food i.e the underground portion of certain wild plants. This causes severe health hazards to these tribal people. In a survey it is found that about 78% of tribal population is suffering from hunger related complications and about 82% children are suffering from various food poison and other unknown diseases which sometimes lead to premature death. Also about 92% of tribal population (forest dwellers) has now changed their food habit due to non availability of land for their indigenous cultivation practices which is another factor for their food insecurity. In conclusion the coordination of 3 “E” is important as lack of proper education and less access to ecology will lead to a degraded economy. Keywords: Climate change, Food systems Deforestation and forest degradation, Human health and wellbeing, Sustainable forest management ID: 3654134
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    Report on the exploratory socio-economic survey of the Egyptian Red Sea fisheries 1979
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    The Egyptian Red Sea coast is approximately 1630 km in length. The main fishery centres are Suez, Hurghada and Quseir on the western side. El-Tor fishing centre, located on the eastern side of the Gulf of Suez was under Israeli control when this report was being prepared. The yearly average catch of the Red Sea fisheries has been estimated at approx. 16000 tons. The fishing fleet consists of 287 motorized boats powered by engines from 8-400 HP, and 158 sail and row boats. The medium and larger m otorized boats use trawling and purse seine or both either in or out of the Gulf of Suez. Boats is marketed fresh (iced) and in small parts salted and dried. Pricing is considered a complicated problem, both for fishermen and for the authorities. Inadequate pricing has given rise to black market of fish. The total number of fishermen is about 3700. The Suez Fishing Centre area is the densest followed by Quseir and Hurghada. The majority of fishermen have no other occupation. Some owners of motor ized boats participate in the fish trade. Also, the big fish traders own all or part of some fishing boats. The standard of living is rather low, especially for small owners and labourers. Most of the fishermen depend mainly upon fish traders to supply them with loans to finance their business and personal requirements. There is a trend among the fishermen to leave fishing for other activities for the following reasons: the pollution caused by oil prospecting operations; security regulations hav e limited fishing operations; the prohibition of fishing operations near some islands restricts fishing areas, especially for the small boats which cannot operate far from the coast; lack of a rational fish pricing systems; the inadequacy of social services and relatively high wages in mining, construction and touristic projects which entice fishermen to leave fishing activities; lack of proper facilities on the landing sites hampers fishing operations. The Fishermen Cooperative Societies (FCS) in Suez, Hurghada and Quseir are considered as the main fishermen's organizations. However, the activities of these FCS arc very limited mainly due to lack of funds. Because of the numerous authorities supervising the Red Sea fisheries, an overlap occurs which, coupled with lack of coordination, given rise to conflicting decisions and inadequate use of available resources.
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    Forests , Rangelands and Climate Change in Jordan Near East Region Country Reports. Country Report for the Regional Workshop on Forests and Rangelands in the Near East Region
    Cairo, Egypt 20-22 September 2011.
    2011
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    Jordan is a Mediterranean country that depends mostly on rain as its main water resource . recent years have witnessed shortage in the rainfall in different parts of the country .

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