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Assessment of impacts and recovery needs of communities affected by the El Niño-induced drought in Kunene, Erongo and Omusati regions of Namibia










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    Evaluation of FAO’s contribution to building resilience to El Niño-induced drought in Southern Africa 2016-2017 2020
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    During the 2015–2016 agricultural season, Southern Africa experienced intense drought due to one of the strongest El Niño events in 50 years. With 70 percent of the population reliant on agriculture, El Niño had a direct impact on food security and caused loss of income across crop and livestock value chains. FAO activated a corporate surge support and launched its Southern Africa El Niño Response Plan, appealing for USD 109 million to support government efforts to rebuild and fortify agricultural livelihoods, restoring agricultural production, incomes and assets and increasing household access to nutritious food. FAO country teams translated the regional plan into tailored intervention packages on the ground. But while agro-meteorological and early-warning alerts were timely, they did not trigger early action. The evaluation calls on FAO to initiate a systematic approach to adaptive programming, to conduct an in-depth analysis of the factors that slowed delivery in Southern Africa, to expand on the targeting of different groups, so as to meet the needs of farmers with varying degrees of vulnerability, and to bolster learning, information-sharing and advocacy efforts across countries.
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    Climate-change vulnerability in rural Zambia: the impact of an El Niño-induced shock on income and productivity 2019
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    This paper examines the impacts of the El Niño during the 2015/2016 season on maize productivity and income in rural Zambia. The analysis aims at identifying whether and how sustainable land management (SLM) practices and livelihood diversification strategies have contributed to moderate the impacts of such a weather shock. The analysis was conducted using a specifically designed survey called the El Niño Impact Assessment Survey (ENIAS), which is combined with the 2015 wave of the Rural Agricultural Livelihoods Surveys (RALS), as well as high resolution rainfall data from the Africa Rainfall Climatology version 2 (ARC2). This unique, integrated data set provides an opportunity to understand the impacts of shocks like El Niño that are expected to get more frequent and severe in Zambia, as well as understand the agricultural practices and livelihood strategies that can buffer household production and welfare from the impacts of such shocks to drive policy recommendations. Results show that households affected by the drought experienced a decrease in maize yield by around 20 percent, as well as a reduction in income up to 37 percent, all else equal. Practices that moderated the impact of the drought included livestock diversification, income diversification, and the adoption of agro-forestry. Interestingly, the use of minimum soil disturbance was not effective in moderating the yield and income effects of the drought. Policies to support livestock sector development, agroforestry adoption, and off -farm diversification should be prioritized as effective drought resiliency strategies in Zambia.
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    Project
    Assisting vulnerable households affected by El Niño-induced drought in Eritrea - TCP/ERI/3605 2019
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    Eritrea is repeatedly exposed to natural and human-induced disasters, especially drought and floods. During 2015/16 the climatic situation was exacerbated by the impact of the El Niño-induced drought, in particular in the subzoba(subregions) of Hagaz, Geleband Adi-Tekelezanin Ansebaregion, which severely impacted the lives and livelihoods of pastoralists and agropastoralistsin these areas. Against this background, the project aimed to provide emergency support to enable smallholder farming households to resume agricultural production and start rebuilding their asset bases.

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