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The Poultry Sector in Viet Nam: Prospects for Smallholder Producers in the Aftermath of the HPAI Crisis

Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative: A Living from Livestock









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    Document
    Commune-level Simulation Model of HPAI H5N1 Poultry Infection and Control in Viet Nam
    Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative: A Living from Livestock
    2006
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    This report describes a farm-based disease transmission model that approximates the dynamics of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in Vietnam poultry farms. During model experimentation the impact of varying different sets of epidemiological parameters on the number of infected farms, the force of infection and on the net reproductive number within a commune were simulated. The average net reproductive number (secondary cases arising from one infected farm in a vaccinated population), Rn, in the most lenient c ontrol scenario was 2.26. Current disease control measures are predicted to significantly reduce disease transmission but do not completely eliminate the possibility for circulation of residual infection (Rn. = 1.05). A disease control optimization process which takes into account the differences in farm structure between geographical regions shows that optimal disease control policies differ, depending on local conditions. However, they also suggest that complete elimination of HPAI H5N1 from d omestic poultry in Vietnam requires high levels of vaccination coverage of S4 backyard farms, levels that are unlikely to be achievable. Therefore, more attention must be paid to early detection of infection and reduced response time.
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    Article
    Risk Factors Associated with Avian Influenza Subtype H9 Outbreaks in Poultry Farms of Central Lowland Nepal 2022
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    Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) of subtype H9 outbreaks have been frequently occurring in major commercial hubs of Nepal including Chitwan, a central lowland area, causing substantial economic losses to the farmers. However, the risk factors associated with these outbreaks have been poorly understood, and hence, this case-control study was conducted in Chitwan, Nawalpur, and Makawanpur districts of Nepal from October 2019 to March 2020. A total of 102 farms were selected in which 51 were case farms, and 51 were controls. Case farms were avian influenza (AI)-subtype-H9-confirmed farms through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays on poultry samples. Control farms included farms that were AI-negative in the antigen test brought to the National Avian Disease Investigation Laboratory, Chitwan, for diagnosis during the study period. Each farm was visited to collect information using a semi- structured questionnaire. A total of 25 variables representing farm characteristics and biosecurity measures were considered as potential risk factors. The final multivariable model showed that distance of less than 0.5 km from the main road (OR = 4.04, 95% CI = 1.20–13.56, p = 0.023), distance of less than 1 km from a nearest infected farm (OR = 76.42, 95% CI = 7.17–814.06, p = 0.0003), and wild birds coming around the farm (OR = 6.12, 95% CI = 1.99–18.79, p = 0.0015) were risk factors for avian influenza type H9, whereas using apron or separate cloth inside the shed (OR = 0.109, 95% CI = 0.020–0.577, p = 0.0092) was shown to reduce the risk of farms being positive for AI subtype H9. These findings suggest that due consideration should be given to site selection while establishing the farms and the importance of implementing appropriate biosecurity measures, such as using separate cloth inside the shed and preventing the entry of wild birds inside the farm to reduce the potential risk of introduction of avian influenza type H9 to their poultry farms.
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    Good biosecurity practices in small scale commercial and scavenging production systems in Kenya
    Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases (including Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza) in Eastern Africa
    2007
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    Ever since the outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997 of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 subtype in poultry and the deaths of six of the infected workers, an unprecedented spread of poultry and human infections by this subtype have occurred from year 2003 to date from South East Asia and China to reach the Middle East, Europe and Africa. This spread is believed to have occurred through migratory wild birds. In Africa, Sudan and Djibouti first reported outbreaks; followed in Februa ry, 2006 by Nigeria and subsequently most countries close to Nigeria have since reported outbreaks. Other subtypes of avian influenza viruses, especially H7N7 and H7N3 that have been reported to have infected humans continue to cause severe disease in many countries of the world with enormous economic and socio-cultural consequences. Further spread in Africa is very likely to occur. Once these outbreaks occur, they pose risks to human infection, disrupt production, marketing, processing and dist ribution of poultry and their products and destabilize livelihoods of vulnerable groups as well as many other socio-economics activities...

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