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Wildlife and ecosystems

ECTAD Information Sheet: April 2010








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    Book (stand-alone)
    Wildlife and H5N1 HPAI - Current Knowledge (July 2010)
    FAO EMPRES Wildlife Unit Fact Sheet
    2010
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    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus that originated from domestic geese in 1996 in Guangdong Province in southern China (Xu, Subbarao, Cox et al. 1999) was first detected in humans and domestic chickens in Hong Kong in 1997 (Alexander 2007). Since 2003, H5N1 HPAI virus clade 2.2 has spread across Asia, Europe and Africa resulting in the loss of over 250 million domestic poultry including chickens, ducks, turkeys, quail and ostrich causing huge negative socioeconomic and liveliho od impacts, as well as affecting food and protein resources, wildlife populations and public health (Alexander 2007). In 2005, the first large scale mortality in wild birds occurred in China and since then there has been increased interest and concern over the role of wild birds in the spread and maintenance of this virus. This Fact Sheet provides up to date information on aspects of the H5N1 virus in relation to wildlife, particularly wild birds. More information is also available on the Sci entific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds, jointly coordinated by the Convention on Migratory Species and FAO, www.aiweb.info.
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    Document
    Avian Influenza Disease Emergency: issue No. 61 (31/08/2009)
    AIDEnews
    2009
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    After H5N1 HPAI virus was reported in poultry in South East Asia in early 2004, it was only a matter of time before incursions were reported in Europe and countries of the Central Asia Region. It is widely believed that the virus was mainly spread through migration of wild birds, as well as cross-border trade. Whichever the explanation might be, it was quite evident that by mid 2005 this region was experiencing a major avian influenza H5N1 epidemic. Outbreaks were reported in the Russian Federat ion and Kazakhstan in July 2005, followed by Mongolia in August, Turkey in October, and Ukraine in November of that same year. The first outbreaks occurred in wild birds, followed by rapid spread to domestic poultry: both, backyard and commercial flocks. In January 2006, Turkey reported its first confirmed human case of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection and death, followed shortly thereafter by Azerbaijan in February. From 2006 to 2008, H5N1 HPAI has been repeatedly reported in Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan and Turkey, which suggests that there are continuous reintroductions from an outside source.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Persistence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Defined by Agro-Ecological Niche 2010
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    Abstract: The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has spread across Eurasia and into Africa. Its persistence in a number of countries continues to disrupt poultry production, impairs smallholder livelihoods, and raises the risk a genotype adapted to human-to-human transmission may emerge. While previous studies identified domestic duck reservoirs as a primary risk factor associated with HPAI H5N1 persistence in poultry in Southeast Asia, little is known of such factors in countr ies with different agro-ecological conditions, and no study has investigated the impact of such conditions on HPAI H5N1 epidemiology at the global scale. This study explores the patterns of HPAI H5N1 persistence worldwide, and for China, Indonesia, and India includes individual provinces that have reported HPAI H5N1 presence during the 2004–2008 period. Multivariate analysis of a set of 14 agricultural, environmental, climatic, and socio-economic factors demonstrates in quantitative terms that a combination of six variables discriminates the areas with human cases and persistence: agricultural population density, duck density, duck by chicken density, chicken density, the product of agricultural population density and chicken output/input ratio, and purchasing power per capita. The analysis identifies five agro-ecological clusters, or niches, representing varying degrees of disease persistence. The agroecological distances of all study areas to the medoid of the niche with the greatest number of human cases are used to map HPAI H5N1 risk globally. The results indicate that few countries remain where HPAI H5N1 would likely persist should it be introduced…

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