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Egg Marketing

A guide for the production and sale of eggs











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    Book (stand-alone)
    Developing the Layer Farm Assessment Tool (LFAT)
    Improving biosecurity and management in commercial layer farms in Indonesia
    2020
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    In order to minimize the potential spread of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases and provide products that are safe, healthy, wholesome and halal, commercial layer farms in Indonesia need to ensure that they have good farm management practices, biosecurity, and animal health protocols in place on their farms. Good management and biosecurity can also provide positive environmental outcomes and maintain the health and financial viability of farm owners and workers. In response to this, the Food and Agriculture Organization – Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (FAO ECTAD) Indonesia and the Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health Services (DGLAHS) developed a tool to assess the management of small to medium size layer farms. The layer farm assessment tool (LFAT) evaluates the farm activities and characteristics and provides an objective measure of farm management and biosecurity. Not only does it allow comparison of farms but it also can be used by advisory staff to suggest improvements in order to reach the quality expected of HPAI-free compartmentalization farms and receive NKV (veterinary certification) farm accreditation. The LFAT is adapted from the HPAI-free certification examination check list used by the Directorate of Animal Health (DAH, DGL&AHS). HPAI-free compartment certification is an assessment standard for poultry farms under Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture regulation No.28/Permentan/OT.140/5/2008. The adaptation is to ensure that this tool is particularly relevant to small and medium-scale layer farms. The LFAT consists of 50 sub-components amalgamated into three components - farm management, biosecurity and poultry health management. Sub-components and hence components, are ranked on a scale of zero to five with a score of 4 and above classified as ‘good’. A score between 3 and 4 as ‘average’ and below 3, the sub-component is regarded as ‘poor’. The LFAT was piloted in Blitar (East Java), Kendal (Central Java) and Purbalingga districts (Central Java) in order to test its usefulness and applicability to layer farms. The LFAT has proved to be useful in providing an objective measure on which to base advisor and farmer training programs that lead to improved farm management, reduction in disease spread and more efficient value chains and vaccination programs. It can also be used as the measuring tool for farmers to move towards NKV and HPAI-free compartmentalization certification.
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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Lao PDR: Improving poultry health and production in Luang Prabang 2019
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    The demand for poultry and poultry products is increasing in Luang Prabang and surrounding provinces. To meet this demand, the province imports poultry from neighboring countries. This poses risks to the vulnerable local poultry population with threat of introduction of transboundary animal diseases such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Luang Prabang reported HPAI outbreaks in the past and the risk of reintroduction is always high. To reduce the risk of introduction of HPAI, the Department of Livestock and Fisheries (DLF), Lao PDR and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) implemented the project on ‘evidence-based risk management along the livestock production and market chain.’ Related activities were implemented in three high-risk villages of Luang Prabang with support from the United States Agency for International Development and the Australian Government. A community-based approach was used to improve poultry health and management by organizing farmer groups in each village. The focus is on developing a sustainable business enterprise by raising a niche breed of poultry. This is foreseen to meet the needs of local poultry farmers and market demand. This leaflet highlights one of the success stories in the implementation of the project on evidence-based risk management along the livestock production and market chain funded by the United States Agency for International Development and the Australian Government. The project selected three high-risk villages in Luang Prabang, Lao PDR under the threat of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Farms in these villages showed improvement in poultry health and management practices using a community-based approach.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Characterization of domestic duck production systems in Cambodia
    AHBL - Promoting strategies for prevention and control of HPAI
    2009
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    A survey was conducted among 99 farmers in Kampong Cham, Kampot, Odar Meanchey, Rattanakiri and Siem Reap provinces in Cambodia to determine the different duck production systems and to differentiate the phenotypic characteristics of ducks in different provinces. The majority of farmers interviewed were men aged between 40 and 50 years. The illiteracy rate among these farmers is less than the national average of 26.4. Rice is the main agricultural crop in all five provinces, 71.7 percent of the farmers rear cattle/buffaloes and 53.5 percent keep pigs along with their ducks. The average flock size is highest in Siem Reap province (204 birds/flock) and lowest in Kampot (10.4 birds/flock). Across all the survey provinces, about 25.2 percent of the farmers stated that poultry numbers have decreased over the last five years. 70.7 percent of the farmers purchase birds from outside, from nearby markets, neighbours or commercial farms. They prefer to buy ducklings rather than adults, and they do not have any particular selection criteria. About 93 percent of the farmers provide some kind of housing for their birds, usually constructed mainly from simple materials available on-farm. Although the birds depend on scavenging, 95 percent of the farmers provide extra feed. Very few farmers use the available veterinary facilities, and disease is reported as the main cause of mortality. In general, the labour involved in managing and marketing the birds is almost equally divided between men and women. The results of multivariate analysis indicate that ducks in Odar Meanchey province are clearly separated from those in all other populations. The most similar populations are those of Kampong Cham and Siem Reap. A comparison of the distances among ducks and chickens indicates that there is even greater diversity in ducks than chickens in Cambodia.

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