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FAO Investment Centre. Country Highlights. Egypt: Wheat Sector Review

Report No. 23 – September 2015










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    Book (stand-alone)
    Wheat Landraces in Farmers' Fields in Turkey: National Survey, Collection and Conservation, 2009-2014 2015
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    Turkey is located at a unique position from the view point of plant genetic diversity. Due to its great variety in geomorphology, topography, and climate, Turkey has a large diversity of habitats so it is very rich in plant species and endemism. One plant, perhaps the most important one, is wheat. Wheat is one of the most important agricultural commodities in Turkey, and the country ranks among the top ten wheat producers in the world. Wheat is a staple and strategic crop and an essential food i n the Turkish diet, consumed mostly as bread, but also as bulgur, yufka (flat bread), and cookies. Total annual wheat production is estimated at 19.6 million metric tons, valued at approximately US$6.9 billion in 2010. Total production area is approximately 8 million ha (FAO, 2012). Value addition via processing makes the wheat industry one of the major sectors in the economy. The study showed that wheat landraces are being produced by farmers in generally remote areas for subsistence farming. T he number of farmers producing wheat landraces and different wheat landrace populations are likely decreasing. As a country, Turkey has a good strategy to conserve them in gene banks (ex situ conservation), but should focus more on their maintenance under farmers’ conditions (in situ conservation) and improve conservation and sustainability strategies using organic farming practices, geographical indicators, mountainous production practices, and emphasis on local products.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    FAO Wheat Rust Diseases Global Programme 2014–2017
    Strengthening capacities and promoting collaboration to prevent wheat rust epidemics
    2014
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    Wheat is a source of food and livelihoods for over 1 billion people in developing countries. A major staple food crop in many countries, it is an important source of nutrition, providing on average 40 percent of per capita calorie intake. Drought, floods and diseases severely affect wheat production. Exacerbated by climatic stress, especially in rainfed areas, the impact of wheat diseases is expected to increase. During the past decade a number of virulent strains of wheat rust diseases have eme rged, causing global concerns to wheat production. The wheat stem rust race Ug99 is highly virulent on the majority of world wheat varieties – the risk that it could cause a global epidemic is real. Ug99 is well established in East Africa and Yemen and has spread to the Islamic Republic of Iran. In 2010 and 2013, a new, virulent strain of yellow rust, Yr27, has caused severe outbreaks and losses in many countries in North and East Africa, the Near East and South Asia. Due to ever changing geneti cs of these pathogens they need to be monitored continuously. Wheat production in Northern and Eastern Africa, the Near East and West, Central and South Asia is vulnerable to rust diseases. These regions account for around 37 percent of global wheat production. The cost of a 10 percent loss in areas at risk is estimated to exceed USD 5.8 billion. The impact on food and nutrition security is estimable. To combat wheat rust diseases continuous surveillance as well as a programmatic management appr oach are essential.
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    Journal, magazine, bulletin
    FPMA Bulletin #1, 12 February 2019
    Monthly Report on Food Price Trends
    2019
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    International prices of wheat remained firm in January due to tightening export supplies and robust world demand, while concerns over the impact of adverse weather on crops in South America underpinned maize export price quotations. International prices of rice also rose, mainly due to reviving Asian demand for Japonica rice. In East Africa, in the Sudan and South Sudan, the weak national currencies provided upward support to the prices of staple foods and kept them at levels well above those a year earlier. High production and transport costs also contributed to the higher level of prices. In Southern Africa, seasonal price increases of maize were amplified in several countries by the reduced 2018 production outturns, while in Zimbabwe, a drop in the value of the country’s currency and a shortage of foreign exchange were the main drivers of the surge in food prices late last year.

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