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Communication and Participation in the Canandian Context

COUNTRY PAPER PROPOSED BY CANADA








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    Book (stand-alone)
    Guidelines for risk categorization of food and food establishments applicable to ASEAN countries 2011
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    Ensuring the quality and safety of foods is complex and systemic, extending from the production environment to the end consumer and involving the entire food chain. Traditionally, regulatory inspection activities are carried out by assessing compliance with all applicable regulations to improve basic sanitation and upgrade food establishments. This approach emphasizes reactive measures rather than preventative ones. Instead, risk-based food inspection systems focus on addressing food-borne disea se risk factors that put the producer’s products at risk. It is these factors that the inspector must concentrate on to have a meaningful impact on food safety. By focusing on the occurrence of risk factors that cause food-borne diseases – such as food from unsafe sources, inadequate cooking, improper holding temperatures and contaminated equipment – the inspector is able to determine whether the quality and safety management system of the food establishment is adequate. The guidelines in this b ook were prepared for use by national authorities involved in food inspection in ASEAN countries to move the region towards a risk-based approach to food inspection. Risk categorization tables in businesses dealing with primary and secondary foods are provided.
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    A Canadian Perspective on an Integrated Approach to Food Safety 2002
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    The food safety system in Canada operates in a multi-jurisdictional setting. At the federal level, the system is integrated by Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). Within government, co-operative federal/provincial/territorial structures are in place including targeted funding support from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC). Two major integrated food safety initiatives are described B the Canadian Food Safety Adaptation Program (CFSAP) and the Canadian On-Farm Food Safety Program (COFFSP). Canada is committed to implementing an integrated and science-based approach to enhance food safety. The overall strategy is based on shared responsibility, the use of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles/practices and the introduction of leading technologies and detection methods within government and across the food industry. The goal is to enhance food safety in Canada and to maintain domestic and international recognition of the safety of Canadia n products.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Applications of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) in food safety management 2016
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    Recent advances in Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) technology have the potential to play a significant role in the area of food safety. WGS provides rapid identification and characterization of microorganisms, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR), with a level of precision not previously possible. With the rapidly declining cost of this technology, WGS applications in food safety management, including the opportunities it provides for enhanced integration of information from other sectors, suc h as human and animal health, could contribute to enhanced consumer protection, trade facilitation, nutrition and food security. However, the level of understanding of the concepts and potential use of WGS in food safety management vary among countries. This document aims to take the first steps in addressing these gaps, and providing answers to some of the questions which food safety officials (particularly those in developing countries) need to ask and consider if they are to make informed dec isions about WGS and its potential value in food safety management in their context. Four real-life case studies are presented to highlight key benefits and potential drawbacks of WGS in food safety management. Benefits and drawbacks are explained in detail, including the issues related to global data sharing. The document discusses challenges in employing WGS within the regulatory framework in both developed and developing countries, and highlights considerations for countries with limited capa city and resources. A simple exercise to enable developing countries to assess the feasibility of incorporating WGS into national food control systems through a step-by-step approach is described. While WGS can significantly contribute to improving food safety management, it still relies on the appropriate interpretation of laboratory data in the context of epidemiological evidence; WGS alone will not suffice. Despite the challenges, WGS is poised to become standard methodology in some places fo r the identification and characterization of foodborne pathogens. Finding appropriate mechanisms for data sharing will be an important element of its application. In all of this, there is a strong need at the global level to ensure that situations in developing countries are fully taken into account, and that the technology advances in an appropriate direction, in order for WGS to become an effective tool for all.

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