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Marine protected areas: country case studies on policy, governance and institutional issues.










Sanders, J.S.; Gréboval, D.; Hjort, A. (comp.) Marine protected areas: country case studies on policy, governance and institutional issues. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 556/1. Rome, FAO. 2011. 118 pp.


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    Book (series)
    Marine protected areas - Country case studies on policy, governance and institutional issues
    Japan, Mauritania, the Philippines, Samoa
    2013
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    This Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper presents case studies of the policy, governance and institutional issues of marine protected areas in Belize, Mauritania, Samoa, Philippines, and Japan. It is the second of four in a global series of case studies on MPAs. An initial volume provides an analysis and synthesis of all the studies. The set of global MPA case studies was designed to close a deficit in information on the governance of MPAs and spatial management tools, within bot h fisheries management and biodiversity conservation contexts. The studies examine governance opportunities in and constraints on the use of spatial management measures at the national level. They were also designed to inform implementation of the FAO Technical Guidelines on Marine protected areas (MPAs) and fisheries, which were developed to provide information and guidance on the use of MPAs in the context of fisheries.
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    Governance of marine protected areas in least-developed countries. Case studies 2011
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    This document is a synthesis of Les aires marines protégées d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Gouvernance et politiques publiques (Weigel et. al, 2007) which proposes an analytical framework to study the governance of MPAs in the LDCs, drawing on four sources of inspiration: (i) the interactive fisheries governance approach; (ii) the risk governance approach; (iii) the socioanthropology of mediations and brokerage; and (iv) the governance analytical framework. The framework indicates the five issu es that must be addressed in order to operationalize the concept of governance in LDC MPAs: (i) definition of the problem or the issue at stake; (ii) identification of the set of relevant governance norms; (iii) presentation of the actors involved in the governance process; (iv) highlighting the nodes around which actors’ strategies converge; and (v) recalling the processes that have led to the current state of governance. This analytical framework makes it possible to characterize t he governance system of each of the MPAs considered and to develop a typology of these systems. The characterization of different governance systems highlights their weaknesses and paves the way for new public policy options and, more generally, for the restructuring of governance to correct these weaknesses. In order to develop an analytical framework and the characterization of governance systems the main MPA governance principles and constraints, as well their legal context, were clarified. This was done by testing the proposed methodology in three West African coastal and marine protected areas, which illustrated the difficulties of governance in LDCs: the Banc d’Arguin National Park in Mauritania, the Saloum Delta Biosphere Reserve in Senegal, and the Bolama Bijagos Archipelago Biosphere Reserve in Guinea-Bissau. The analysis of demographic and economic constraints in these West African MPAs showed the importance of: (i) increasing population density and mobi lity; (ii) the intensification of resource exploitation; and (iii) and the opening of the MPA economy. The analysis of the legal and institutional contexts showed the international inspiration of the MPA objectives and conservation arrangements, and the syncretism of the legal system.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Report of FAO workshops at the Third International Marine Protected Areas Congress (IMPAC3) 2014
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    Marine protected areas – MPAs – were initially introduced mainly as a tool for biodiversity conservation. However, in fisheries, spatial–temporal–gear closures are historically a common management measure. Though closures are not necessarily always the preferred measure and spatial measures, when used, generally need to be combined with other management measures to achieve effectiveness and avoid negative effects, including increased fishing pressure outside the MPA and higher costs of fishing. In fact, many MPAs do note provide direct benefits to fishers, especially not when designed mainly for conservation purposes. Many small-scale fishing communities are sceptical about MPAs and do indeed suffer hardship when they are introduced in a top-down manner and with limited understanding of the fisheries and fishery-based livelihoods. The FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department has been engaged in work on MPAs and fisheries for some time, realizing that the effects of MPAs on fisheries an d fishing communities are not well understood nor always considered when designating protected areas. This work includes the publication of technical guidelines on MPAs and fisheries, the organization of regional workshops (covering so far Southeast Asian and Bay of Bengal countries, the Western Indian Ocean region and the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem area), the carrying out of governance reviews of the use of spatial management measures and the provision of inputs into biodiversity fo ra.

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