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Participatory Livelihoods Monitoring

Linking Programmes and Poor People’s Interests to Policies Experiences from Cambodia










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    Project
    Outline Report. Regional project completion workshop “Small-Scale Farmer Inclusion in Organic Agriculture Development through Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS)”
    TCP/RAS/3510
    2018
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    In 2013, during the “Asia Pacific Symposium on Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Organic Farming” jointly organized by FAO and IFOAM- Organics international, countries requested technical assistance for the establishment and promotion of Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) certification schemes in the region. In response to this request and an increasing demand for organic products from consumers in the region to ensure food safety, an FAO pilot project on “Small-Scale Farmer Inclusion in Organic Agriculture Development through Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS)” (TCP/RAS/3510) initiated on 01 September 2015 and ended on 31 December 2017. The project’s outcome was “an increased number of farmers produce organic crops and market them in a remunerative way to increased number of consumers through PGS” and was implemented by FAO and the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) in Cambodia and by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) in Lao PDR, in collaboration with international partners such as IFOAM- Organics international, Earth Net Foundation (ENF) and many other local partners, including the Cambodian Center for Study and Development in Agriculture (CEDAC), the Center for Organic Development, Cambodia (COD), the Natural Agriculture Village Cambodia (NAV), Caritas Cambodia, Groupe de Recherches et d’Echanges Technologiques Lao PDR (GRET) and the Sustainable Agriculture and Environment Development Association Lao PDR (SAEDA
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Women’s land rights and agrarian change: Evidence from indigenous communities in Cambodia 2019
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    Current changes in land tenure in Cambodia are reshaping indigenous communities agrarian and socio-economic systems. Customary laws that have determined land usage and rights, are now undergoing profound transformations. The commodification of land, influenced by processes of dispossession and alienation, is reshaping communities’ norms and customs. Land, before freely available to users, is now substantially a private asset and as such transferred from one generation to the next one like other assets. Customary laws derive their legitimacy from social systems that are context specific and change with time. This determines their ambiguous character as instruments for resistance and self-determination as well as generators of unequal social relations in rural communities. The experiences from other continents and countries have shown the contradictory and often conflicting linkage between customary land rights and women’s rights to own land. This study analysis the customary inheritance system of indigenous groups in Northern Cambodia, prevalently centred around matrilineal or bilateral kinship, where women used to inherit and own the principal family assets. The research questions focus on indigenous women’s inheritance and property rights as they apply to land, in the context of increasing land commoditization and scarcity. The aim of the enquiry is to contribute to the understanding of the gender implications of these changes, by gaining insight about women’s position vis-à-vis land property, inheritance and transfer to new generations. The changes in land tenure that have occurred in Ratanakiri province during the last decades have resulted in a substantial alienation of land and resources formerly available to indigenous people. Consequently, the area farmed under shifting cultivation has significantly decreased and been replaced by permanent commercial crops, while the increasing monetization of communities’ economy has triggered new processes of social differentiation. Little support has been given to indigenous farmers in order to manage this transition and adapt their farming system while maintaining its sustainability. The legal instruments deriving from the Land Law, which in theory should have contributed to provide formal legal protecting to indigenous land and allow communities to continue using land according to their traditional tenure system were impaired by delays and the obstacles in the practical implementation of the law. External actors, institutional as well as non-governmental, have been actively promoting agricultural practices centred on rapid gains, unsustainable exploitation of land and forest, carpet introduction of monocultures without creating the conditions for the establishment of favourable value chains and market conditions. The changes that have taken place have important implications in terms of women’s role and status within communities: not only because of the farming system transition, but also as a consequence of the increasing influence of the mainstream culture, in which gender norms are more hierarchical and constrictive then the ones in use among the indigenous peoples targeted by this study. Following the evidence presented here, strengthening indigenous women land rights may result from a multipurpose approach that embraces different areas of interventions and actors, detailed in the recommendations provided.
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    Article
    A participatory action research approach to community-based fire prevention and peatland restoration in Indonesia
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Over the past several decades, vegetation fires have become regular events in Southeast Asia, Central Africa and Latin America. Indonesia’s vegetation and peat fires in 2015 and 2019 emitted significant greenhouse gas emissions and caused transboundary haze across Southeast Asian countries. Governments, NGOs and international donors have been campaigning for ‘zero and controlled burning’, however, the use of fire across the landscape still occurs. Using fire significantly reduces the cost and time of land preparation, yet it poses important negative environmental and climate externalities. A main challenge, therefore, is to introduce fire-free alternatives for land preparation. While corporations are well-equipped with knowledge and technology, communities require specialized support in learning, and provided with access to resources and technologies to implement alternatives for land preparation without burning. This paper explains the gradual change in behavior of selected communities in land preparation and farming practice on peatlands in Sumatra. We used participatory action research (PAR) approaches to transform behavior of the participating communities. PAR is a trans-disciplinary approach, where various scientific disciplines are combined with local knowledge and experience. With the community as co-researchers, the PAR steps of reflection-planning-action-monitoring were completed from 2018-2020. Communities identified, formulated, tested, and implemented peat-adapted business models in several locations (action arenas). Results show some degree of success in changing behaviour of the communities towards eco-friendly business and land management. We describe how upscaling and out-scaling of the methods and outcomes were conducted through communications and engagement with stakeholders at different levels, ranging from district, province, national and international. Keywords: Climate change, Human health and well-being, Adaptive and integrated management, Economic Development, Landscape management ID: 3486775

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