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Study and analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development.










Hasan, M.R., Hecht, T., De Silva, S.S. and Tacon A.G.J. (eds.) Study and analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 497. Rome, FAO. 2007. 504p.


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    On-farm feeding and feed management in aquaculture 2013
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    This technical paper provides a comprehensive review of on-farm feeding and feed management practices in aquaculture. It comprises of a) ten case studies on feeding and feed management practices carried out in seven selected countries of Asia and Africa for eight species that belong to four major farmed species of freshwater finfish and shellfish; b) an analysis of the findings of the above ten case studies and a separately published case study for Indian major carps carried out in India; c) ten invited specialist reviews on feed management practices from regional and global perspectives; and d) an overview of the current status of feed management practices. The country-specific case studies were carried out for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in China, Thailand, the Philippines, Egypt and Ghana; Indian major carps [rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhosus)] in India and Bangladesh, giant river prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in Bangladesh, strip ed catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Viet Nam and black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in India. The broad thematic areas that were addressed in these case studies and invited reviews are: i) current feed types (including fertilizers) and their use in semi-intensive and intensive farming systems; ii) on-farm feed production and management; iii) feeding and feed management strategies, feed procurement, transportation and storage; iv) environmental , economic, regulatory and legal frameworks of feeding and feed management practices; and iv) identification of research needs. Based on the information presented in the eleven case studies, ten specialist reviews and from other relevant publications, an overview paper presents concluding remarks and recommendations on some of the major issues and constraints in optimizing feed production, use and management.
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    Fish as feed inputs for aquaculture: practices, sustainability and implications 2009
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    This technical paper provides a comprehensive review of the use of wild fish as feed inputs for aquaculture covering existing practices and their sustainability as well as implications of various feed-fish fisheries scenarios. It comprises four regional reviews (Africa and the Near East, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, and Latin America and North America) and three case studies from Latin America (Chile, Peru and the study on the use of the Argentine anchoita in Argentina, Uruguay and Br azil). The four regional reviews specifically address the sustainable use of finite wild fish resources and the role that feed-fish fisheries may play for food security and poverty alleviation in these four regions and elsewhere. With additional information from case studies in China and Viet Nam, a global synthesis provides a perspective on the status and trends in the use of fish as feed and the issues and challenges confronting feed-fish fisheries. Based on the information presented in the global synthesis, regional reviews and three case studies, and through the fresh analysis of information presented elsewhere, an exploratory paper examines the use of wild fish as aquaculture feed from the perspective of poverty alleviation and food security.
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    Economics of aquaculture feeding practices in selected Asian countries. 2007
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    This technical paper provides an analysis of the economic implications of, and the reasons for, adopting various feeding practices for different fish species and aquaculture systems in Asia. It consists of case studies in six Asian countries (Bangladesh, China, India, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam) and an overall synthesis ending with conclusions and recommendations. The systems studied include extensive/traditional, semi-intensive and intensive farms for a number of different species including sutchi and pangasiid catfishes (Bangladesh and Viet Nam), hybrid catfish (Thailand), carp polyculture (India and China), prawn and milkfish polyculture (the Philippines). The work identifies the principal input costs, assesses the economic rates of return (gross and net margins), returns to labour, land and capital, gross and net total factor productivity, and break-even prices and production. For the most part, intensive farms applying industrial feeds attained the highest economic returns, although not necessarily the highest benefits. In many cases, feed costs were extremely high, accounting for over 80 percent of the total. Feed cost, feeding rate, stocking rate, recovery or survival rate and fertilizer cost were identified as the key variables in influencing production. Use of intensive farming was consistent with strong farmer education and good extension practices. It is expected that the results of these studies will assist in adopting app ropriate feed management strategies depending on the availability of inputs and the level of technical know-how of the farmers.

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