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NPOA - South Africa - National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Managementof Sharks








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    NPOA - National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks in the Maldives 2015
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    Sharks are a group of about 1,100 species of mostly marine fishes (Compagno, 2001). Estimates on the global annual harvest of sharks vary considerably from 700,000 to 1.5 million tonnes and the only real consensus is that data on the fishery are chronically lacking (Frisk, et al., 2001; Stevens, et al., 2000). Sharks in general, are extremely vulnerable to over-fishing due to their slow growth, late maturity, long reproductive cycles and low reproductive output (Musick , et al., 2000). Increased worldwide exploitation of shark species with scientific evidence proving declining shark populations and few countries managing their shark fisheries, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations developed a set of guidelines to ensure the management and conservation of sharks. These guidelines became the International Plan of Action on Sharks (IPOA-Sharks). IPOA-Sharks was endorsed by the FAO Committee on Fisheries (COFI) in 1999. IPOA-Sharks is voluntary and all FAO membe r countries involved in directed and non-directed shark fisheries are encouraged to develop a National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (NPOA-Sharks).
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    Report of the FAO/BirdLife South American Workshop on Implementation of NPOA–Seabirds and Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels. Valdivia, Chile, 2–6 December 2003. 2004
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    The International Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catch of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries (IPOA–Seabirds) was developed by FAO in response to the growing concern. The IPOA–Seabirds requests countries with longline fisheries that interact with seabirds to develop a national plan (NPOA–Seabirds) to reduce the incidental seabird catch in their fisheries. Several countries in the South American region have large populations of albatrosses and petrels, and existing assessments and da ta indicate that significant numbers of seabirds are caught annually in several longline fisheries in this region. Thus FAO and BirdLife International organized this joint workshop to discuss albatross and petrel conservation and to initiate the development of NPOA–Seabirds in the regional countries. Representatives of different disciplines (research institutes, fishing industry, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), governmental agencies) from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru and Urug uay met to discuss topics related to implementation of NPOA-Seabirds. National reports were presented giving an overview of the problem and the status of the progress in the development of their NPOA-Seabirds. Experts representing the United States of America and New Zealand, which have finalized the development of their NPOA-Seabirds, gave presentations of these works. Presentations were also given of regional agreements such as the South American Strategy for the Conservation of Alba trosses and Petrels (ESCAPE), the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP) and the Southern Seabird Solution (SSS). Discussion groups were set up to discuss mitigation measures, priorities, projects and potential funding sources.
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    Malaysia National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Shark (Plan 2) 2014
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    Malaysia has been very supportive of the International Plan of Action for Sharks (IPOA-SHARKS) developed by FAO that is to be implemented voluntarily by countries concerned. This led to the development of Malaysia’s own National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Shark or NPOA-Shark (Plan 1) in 2006. The successful development of Malaysia’s second National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Shark (Plan 2) is a manifestation of her renewed commitment to the continuous improvement of shark conservation and management measures in Malaysia. For the purpose of this document, the term ‘shark’ refers to all chondrichthyan or cartilaginous fishes, comprising sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras. Lessons learnt through the implementation of Plan 1 were used as the basis for the development of Plan 2. In Plan 2, 17 issues were identified and clustered according to their nature. To this end, seven broadly defined practical action plans are proposed to address these issues. Following the action plans, specific programs are outlined and prioritized for implementation over the life of Plan 2. Programs ranked as “High” will have to be carried out within one year, “Medium” within 2-3 years and “Low” in four years.

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