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An analysis of the effects of climate change on livestock

A case study in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic









Spiller, D., Franceschini, G., Henry, M., Cinardi, G., Falcucci, A., Wisser, D. & Petri, M. 2023. An analysis of the effects of climate change on livestock – A case study in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Rome, FAO. 




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    The negative effect of climate risks on agriculture in the Republic of North Macedonia is increasing The agriculture sector, particularly the small farm sector, is exposed to prolonged heat waves, increasingly severe droughts and floods Less than ten percent of agricultural land is irrigated and, with the exception of the western parts of the country, water deficiencies occur in summer, resulting in significant moisture stress for summer crops A case study on the influence of excessive heat on livestock breeding found that the yearly number of live pigs was 2 14 percent lower per litter when high temperatures were taken into account, while analysis of viticulture showed that both table and wine grapes were vulnerable to increases in temperature.
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    Building Disaster and Climate Resilience of Agriculture Sector to Achieve The SDGs in Asia - TCP/RAS/3703 2023
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    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) recognizes the need for more resilient food and agriculture systems in its Strategy on Climate Change to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and end hunger and poverty. The agriculture sector is facing increasing risks due to climate change, natural disasters and food chain crises, which put pressure on the sector facing multiple challenges of land use changes, urbanization and market forces. Nearly all FAO Members in the Asia and the Pacific region have a priority area or country outcome on resilience to disasters and climate change, as recognized in their Country Programme Frameworks. However, vulnerability and risk assessment (VRA) in the agriculture sector is still limited globally due to constraints such as the lack of standard tools and capacity and poor management of agriculture disaster damage and loss (D&L). The regional conference on "Strengthening resilient food and agriculture systems" highlighted the urgent need for standard VRA tools for all agricultural subsectors to understand the underlying risk factors, both within and outside the agriculture sector. FAO has developed the methodology for evaluating agriculture disaster D&L, covering all four agricultural sub-sectors (crops, livestock, fisheries/aquaculture and forestry). However, D&L data is often collected on an ad-hoc basis without standardized templates, methods and information management systems. Relevant and good quality data and statistics are critical to measuring the impacts and costs of disasters, anticipating future risks and establishing development goals addressing these risks. All FAO Members in the region of Asia and the Pacific have committed to monitoring and reporting on the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Nationally Determined Contributions to the Paris Agreement and the SDGs. Technical support is required not only to build capacity to apply D&L assessment methodology but also to ensure an institutional approach in strengthening agriculture D&L information management. Such an approach will bring together agriculture sectors and also National Statistics Office, National Disaster Management Agencies and other stakeholders to systematically improve agriculture D&L data, information and management system. To this end, Cambodia, the The Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mongolia and Timor-Leste requested technical support to apply the FAO D&L methodology.
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    Gender in Emergency Food Security, Livelihoods and Nutrition
    A Compendium of What We Know; and Recommendations on What We Need to Know for Enhanced Gender Analysis
    2012
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    The primary objective of drafting this report is to share the existing recent literature on the traditional and changing gender roles within pastoral, agro-pastoral, riverine, urban and IDP communities in Somaliland, Puntland and South Central. This informs identification of data gaps and recommendations. FSNAU intends to put this information to use in several ways: to strengthen routine FSNAU data collection tools and analysis from a gender perspective and to give strategic input into a planned FSNAU stand-alone gender study on Somalia. The focus of the stand-alone study is to gather gender information on Somalia food security, nutrition and livelihoods that will complement FSNAU’s routine data collection processes. Additionally, the Compendium will provide reference and baseline understanding of the gender trends in Somalia to support the Food Security, Livelihoods and Nutrition Teams of FSNAU in establishing measurable gender indicators and improve approaches for collecting gender-s pecific information and methodologies, and addressing the existing gender imbalance in enumerators. In collating the information available, the authors of this report, conducted a desk review of the documented literature in Somalia since 2007. A primary source was FSNAU data which has been supplemented by other available sources. The review revealed that there is a wealth of information on traditional and changing gender roles and responsibilities in food security, livelihood and nutrition but t his had not been compiled into a user-friendly central reference. Some of these findings include; • Both men and women make significant but distinct contributions to the household economy. • The past and existing nutrition surveys focus almost entirely on children under five years, pregnant and lactating mothers and women of reproductive age. An understanding of the nutritional status of other vulnerable groups such as older men and women, adolescent girls and chronically sick males and females (of all ages) is lacking. • Somalia men and women are both active in food production: men 54.1 percent and women 45.9 percent (FAO State of Food and Agriculture Report - 2010/2011). Data 2010. • The synergistic male-female partnership in cropping and protein production is under stress due to competition for grazing, land and water. • A disproportionate number of men dying in conflict as well as more male migration had contributed to the increased number of female-headed households (FHHs). There have been resulting changes in intra-household livelihood roles. • Gender-specific security and protection concerns impact internally displaced persons (IDPs) and urban migrants. • Males predominate in camel/cattle production and sale: females sell and process milk. • Females predominate in all aspects of sheep and goat (shoat) production with shared male and female roles in marketing as well as butchering. • There is a gender divide in marketing: men sell for export and women sell for local con sumption. • Cropping involves a mix of gender-specific and shared tasks. • Local vegetable, milk and cereals markets in many areas are dominated by women. • Milling, commercial transport, agents and interlocutors are mainly men. • Women are responsible for erecting and tear-down of shelters, foraging for firewood and fodder. • Presence of a son gives a woman better access to livestock/assets if her husband dies. • Inter-clan conflicts deter men from participating in trade and instead open an opp ortunity for women to undertake more trade, as women are considered peacemakers, with no primary role in inter-clan conflict. • There are indications that women are increasingly using loans as a coping strategy. In some areas as many women as men are getting loans. • More men are entering traditionally female areas of petty trading and house assembly. • An increasing number of women are active in the formal and non-formal sectors and are diversifying how they earn income. Most specifically, wome n are very active in petty trade and increasingly active as casual workers, leaving less time for good parenting. • There is evidence that girls are pulled from school to allow women to earn. In light of the above, the Compendium clearly supports the need for a gender stand-alone survey and encourages immediate action to recruit additional female enumerators to reduce the current gender gap.

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