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Fish for the Future








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    Book (series)
    Fish marketing and credit in Viet Nam. 2004
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    Since the early 1980s, exports of fish in Viet Nam have increased significantly while the improvement of domestic marketing and utilization of fish have not received sufficient attention. Improving supplies of fish for urban and rural populations, better quality and safety of products and ensuring food security, particularly for disadvantaged and vulnerable parts of the population, are important concerns which were addressed by studies, the findings of which are presented in this repor t. These findings suggest that the domestic consumption of fish in Viet Nam is probably higher than previously assumed. Given the projected strong economic growth over the coming years, it must be expected that local consumer demand will continue to expand. At the same time, the exportoriented fish processing industry will result in an increased demand for raw materials. This substantial future demand for safe and high quality fish products can only be met if efficient marketing arra ngements are in place. The findings of the studies identify a number of constraints in the present domestic fish marketing channels, which form the basis of recommendations for the improvement of the present marketing arrangements. These include the establishment of fish wholesale markets in large urban areas, establishment of well-functioning assembly markets at important fish landing sites, improvement of the legal/regulatory framework for the operations of fish wholesalers, establ ishment of fish market price information systems, promotion of contract farming/ trading systems among fish market operators certified by local authorities, improvement of fisheries statistics systems for better fish market planning, the promotion of a domestic fish market strategy complementing the export-oriented development strategy and the development of a coordination mechanism for the public sector for fish marketing and fish market management. As far as the fish marketing chai n is concerned, it is recommended that governmental and semi-governmental institutions should play an active role in the improvement of the vertical fish marketing chain. Their cooperation with the private-sector stakeholders is requested as capabilities of the private sector to establish well-working cooperation arrangements seem limited and have not (yet) brought the expected benefits. Publicprivate partnership appears to be the key to success. Credit is widely used for financing m arine capture fisheries, particularly offshore fishing and export-oriented fish culture, processing and marketing. State-owned financial institutions play a major role in financing capital expenditure while working capital requirements are mainly met by informal sources of credit. Future investment requirements and credit needs are greater than current availability. In particular, the domestic fish marketing sector, i.e. wholesalers and retailers, so far have only a limited access to credit and this is perceived as an obstacle to the growth and improvement of the sector. In the case of offshore fisheries, the findings suggest that there should not be any further expansion of credit, and future credit support should focus on making the fleet more efficient and sustainable.
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    Book (series)
    Fishing for development
    FAO/OECD April 2014, Paris, France
    2015
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    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the World Bank organized the Fishing for Development joint meeting, which was held in April 2014 at OECD headquarters in Paris. The meeting was convened to initiate a dialogue between the fisheries and the development policy communities from OECD and FAO Members and partner countries on key issues of shared interest. It addressed four topics high on the internation al fisheries and aquaculture policy agenda: the challenges of rebuilding fish stocks while securing the integrity of ecosystems and the livelihoods that depend on them; the potential for green growth in aquaculture; combating illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing; and the role of regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) in the management of high seas fish stocks and in developing cooperation between States that share fish stocks in several exclusive economic zones (EEZs). The meeting reached a number of conclusions and flagged questions for a future work agenda on policy coherence in fisheries and aquaculture. In particular, it highlighted the need to investigate and publicize the role of fisheries and aquaculture for economic development and food and nutritional security, and the opportunity cost of political inaction. It noted the lack of appropriate data, which results in the lack of tangible evidence on the sector’s contribution to economic development and po verty reduction, and how this also prevents improvements in efficiency. The meeting also agreed on the need to investigate low-cost management options and techniques tested in developing countries, such as co-management of fisheries and participatory surveillance systems. It recommended that further investigation of such options should focus on identifying the necessary preconditions for a successful outcome and how to apply them on a larger scale and in different socio-economic contexts. Anothe r conclusion was that there is a need to improve the resilience of coastal populations. The fisheries sector is often a last resort or buffer for marginalized populations, and there is an urgent need to develop alternative livelihood means (e.g. in ecotourism, aquaculture or fish processing) and social safety nets. The meeting also highlighted the need to leverage development cooperation in fisheries and aquaculture and that a major element for efficient cooperation is the sustainability of proj ect impacts. In addition, the meeting stressed the importance of ensuring that domestic fisheries policies of OECD member countries are coherent with long-term global development objectives and do not harm development prospects in developing countries. The meeting noted that developing countries do not always have the resources to monitor their EEZs effectively and suggested that OECD countries should manage and regulate their fleet’s activities outside their own EEZs more effectively. Participa nts at the meeting also agreed on the need to strengthen the fight against IUU fishing. They underlined the role of development cooperation in building capacity in developing countries and discussed the potential impacts of trade restrictions and consumption decisions. However, there were several viewpoints on import bans given the risks associated with establishing technical barriers to trade. Because some illegal fishing activities contravene international laws and may be linked to other crimi nal activities, such as human trafficking, participants agreed on the need to combat these transnational activities using appropriate tools, such as the Interpol network. The meeting made a strong call for countries to ratify the FAO Port State Measures v Agreement as soon as possible. In addition, the meeting concurred on the need to promote green growth in aquaculture, for example, through investment in productive capacity, research and infrastructure. Topics such as certification and licensin g systems were also discussed. Last, the meeting emphasized the need for developing countries to be better integrated in regional cooperation fora. Several regions suffer from a lack of coherence in actions taken by regional fisheries bodies and regional economic organizations, with overlapping competencies and a lack of political impetus. The OECD countries can help developing countries to build the necessary capacity to participate in RFMOs.
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    Future prospects for fish and fishery products. 4. Fish consumption in the European Union in 2015 and 2030. Part 1. European Overview 2006
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    This report presents the major results for fish consumption (consumption per capita and apparent consumption), production (captures and aquaculture and commodities) and fish trade (exports and imports) estimations and projections for 28 countries in Europe from 1989 to 2030. The projections show an increase in the demand for seafood products to 2030. The average per capita consumption by the 28 countries will move form 22 kg/caput/year in 1998 to 24 kg/caput/year in 2030. The two additiona l kilograms per capita signify that the net supply will have to increase by 1.6 million tonnes (MT) (respectively 1.1 Mt for the 2 extra kg per person and 550 000 tonnes due to the 22 million population growth over the period). Aquaculture growth will not be able to meet the increasing demand; therefore, imports are projected to rise to 11 Mt (+15 percent from 1998), increasing the dependency of Europe on the rest of the world for its fish and fish products.

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