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Aquaculture's next frontier?








FAO. 2022. Aquaculture’s next frontier? Bangkok


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    Book (series)
    Expanding mariculture farther offshore - Technical, environmental, spatial and governance challenges 2013
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    This document contains the proceedings of the technical workshop entitled “Expanding mariculture: technical, environmental, spatial and governance challenges”, held from 22 to 25 March 2010, in Orbetello, Italy, and organized by the Aquaculture Branch of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The objective of this workshop was to discuss the growing need to increasingly transfer land-based and coastal aquaculture production systems farther off the coast and provide recommendations for action to FAO, governments and the private sector. The workshop experts proposed general “operational criteria” for defining mariculture activities in three broad categories: (i) coastal mariculture, (ii) off the coast mariculture and (iii) offshore mariculture. Offshore mariculture is likely to offer significant opportunities for food production and development to many coastal countries, especially in regions where the availability o f land, nearshore space and freshwater are limited resources. Mariculture is also recognized as a relevant producer of the protein that the global population will need in the coming decades. It is likely that species with the highest production today, such as salmon, will initially drive the development of offshore mariculture. Nevertheless, the workshop agreed that additional efforts are necessary to define optimal species and improve efforts in the development and transfer of technologies that can facilitate offshore mariculture development. The workshop discussions and reviews indicate large potential for the development of offshore mariculture although more detailed assessments are needed to determine the regions and countries that are most promising for development. It is also recommended that efforts be increased to farm lower trophic levels species and optimize feeds and feeding in order to minimize ecosystems impacts and ensure long-term sustainability. Similarly, risk assessme nts and/or environmental impact assessment and monitoring must always be in place before establishing offshore farms, and permanent environmental monitoring must be ensured. All coastal nations should be prepared to engage actively in developing the technological, legal and financial frameworks needed to support the future development of offshore mariculture to meet global food needs. The workshop report highlights the major opportunities and challenges for a sustainable mariculture industry to grow and further expand off the coast. In particular, the workshop recommended that FAO should provide a forum through which the potential importance of the sea in future food production can be communicated to the public and specific groups of stakeholders and to support its Members and industry in the development needed to expand mariculture to offshore locations. The proceedings include the workshop report and an the accompanying CD–ROM containing six reviews covering technical, environmental, economic and marketing, policy and governance issues, and two case studies on highfin amberjack (Seriola rivoliana) offshore farming in Hawaii (the United States of America) and one on salmon farming in Chile.
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    Current fisheries and aquaculture policies relevant to RFLP in Viet Nam
    Regional Fisheries Livelihoods Programme for South and Southeast Asia. (GCP/RAS/237/SPA)
    2010
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    The Fisheries sector is significant contribution to the economy of Vietnam, the export value in 2008 was US$ 4.509 billion. The fisheries and aquaculture sectors have expanded rapidly over the past decade, with aquaculture production rising from 1,202,500 to 2,430,944 tonnes over the period from 2004 to 2008, with more than 1.3 million MT tons of Pangasius and 450,000 MT of brackish and freshwater shrimp and prawn. Fisheries production in 2008 was about 2,134 thousand tons, of which marine captu re contributed 1,937 thousand tons. The natural resources, particularly inshore fisheries are considered to be over-exploited with many high valued fish resources having declined to low levels. The number of vessels has increased continuously without control since 1980. This leads to increased competition in inshore areas. In order to earn a living, fishermen use many destructive fishing gears and bad practices including smaller mesh sizes than required, other destructive fishing methods like el ectricity, poisons, dynamite. As a result, fish of all sizes are captured, including young and fingerling fish. In recent years, the Government of Vietnam has enacted many policies to support the aim of sustainable development, and poverty reduction while protecting natural resources. To reduce fishing pressure in coastal areas, many programs have been promoted by the Government including offshore fisheries, aquaculture development, services on sea development and infrastructure development. The offshore fishing vessels under Government’s offshore fishing program are supported by a credit scheme for boat construction, upgrading of fishing vessels and offshore fishing services. Considered one of the major alternative activities to diversify income for coastal communities, the aquaculture sector has received increasingly strong support under Government of Vietnam policy over the past 20 years. The main focus has been on the establishment of infrastructure for aquaculture development, and to convert saline paddy fields, low lying land, land used for salt production, flooded land and other unproductive land to aquaculture. In addition Government policy has supported fishers and farmers in isolated areas through credit schemes. Micro-finance is conducted through the Vietnam Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (VBARD), the Commercial Investment Bank (CIB) and the Bank for Social Policy (BSP). BSP mainly provides subsidized loans to poor households, while VBARD and CIB make l arge loans to enterprises. These policies have supported fishermen investing in pond construction, buying of equipment, seed, feeds and other items. To protect natural resources and bio-diversity the following activities have been implemented: Fishing licensing, control of productivity in specific marine areas, protection of rare and precious species that are in danger of extinction, restocking to enhance breeding population size and density, protection of aquatic habitats, and rehabilitation an d protection of fisheries resources etc. Co-management is considered as a potential tool for sustainable utilization of fisheries resources in Vietnam, particularly for small-scale fisheries. In Vietnam, co-management has recently been included in many policy instruments and pilots are in operation in Vietnam with varying degrees of success. Vietnam has set up and is continuously improving the law, regulations and standards on conditions for food safety, environment and animal health protection , which meets most of the provisions, articles for technical barriers to trade (TBT) and Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) measures on food quality and safety of fish and fishery products, from aquaculture to processing and trading of fish and fishery products. The assurance of food safety needs requires the use of a systematic approach from raw material production, handling, processing, preservation and distribution of fish and fishery product to the customers. Over last 20 years, the Vietnam g overnment has enacted many policies to improve safety and reduce vulnerability for fishing communities such as policies on improving safety for fishermen and fishing boats at sea, support of radio communication devices for owner of fishing boats, support to fishermen to overcome natural risks at sea, support to protecting and reduce the affects of natural calamities at sea, insurance support for vessels and fishers, establish anchorages and storm shelters, and establishment of information networ ks on sea and islands, etc.
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    Regional review on status and trends in aquaculture development in Europe – 2020 2022
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    This review reports on aquaculture development trends and challenges during 2000–2018 in the European Region covering 51 countries including European Union member states. Aquaculture production in the European Region is composed of marine molluscs and diadromous, marine and freshwater fish. It reached 3.4 million tonnes in 2018, while having a value of USD 16.6 billion. Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout combine to give nearly two million tonnes, with molluscs providing 0.7 million tonnes; marine fish species supplied 0.4 million tonnes and freshwater fish 0.3 million tonnes. In Europe, the strongest aquaculture growth has been seen in non-European Union states (e.g. Norway, Turkey, Russian Federation) while several European Union states have diminished production (e.g. France, Netherlands, Italy). The growth in value (5.8 percent) is higher than production (0.9 percent), which is now dominated by salmonids (nearly 60 percent), primarily Atlantic salmon. Mediterranean marine fish farming is mainly for gilthead seabream and European seabass. European cyprinid production in freshwater has increased slightly, where the Russian Federation, Czechia and Poland are the biggest producers. Mussels are the principal shellfish reared, led by Spain, followed by oysters in France and clams in Italy. While publicly quoted companies have led salmon development in Northern Europe, elsewhere aquaculture is done, with few exceptions, by SMEs and micro-enterprises. Mechanisms for financial support exist for aquaculture development throughout Europe but these have notnbeen matched by anticipated results. When unpredictable and time-consuming licensing procedures are combined with extreme competition for space and strict environmental regulations, both growth and investments are discouraged. Technology development focus has been given to structures appropriate for marine off-shore or ‘open ocean’ operation. The use of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for large operations has also developed, both for hatcheries and for farms. Treatment for diseases and parasites remains problematic. Use of the same vaccines, veterinary treatments and disinfectants is not standardised, restricting the best health and welfare practices. Access to appropriate and efficient ingredients for formulated feeds remains a key issue for European fish farming, directly influencing productivity and profitability. The European Union is the world’s largest single market for seafood and the most important destination for European aquaculture production. With preferences declared for wild products vs. farmed, the habits of the European consumer have been studied, indicating evolving influences on purchase decisions. These include the use of additives, food miles, climate change, acceptance of manufacturing practices, cost and access as well as health benefits.

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