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Impacts, adoption and difussion of direct seeding mulch cropping systems in the tripics






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    Soaking seeds (seed priming) to improve crop yields 2014
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    Crop establishment is often poor in the semi-arid tropics. However, good crop stand establishment is essential for the efficient use of water and light, and a uniform stand is a pre-requisite for cropping success. Seeds that germinate quickly produce viable seedlings that are not dependent on rapidly declining moisture in the soil that may occur in rain fed systems. Soaking seeds in water before sowing gives the germinating seeds a head start and speeds up seed establishment with a corresponding increase in survival rates and yields. This practice explains as well how farmers can improve the nutrient supply to crops at a low-cost and effective way.
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    Direct seeding equipment for tractors (Conservation Agriculture) 2014
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    This practice describes how direct seeding without mechanical seedbed preparation and with minimal soil disturbance since the harvest of the previous crop can benefit crops growing.
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    Food security impact of agricultural technology adoption under climate change: micro-evidence from Niger 2014
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    We assess farmers' incentives and the conditioning factors that hinder or promote adoption of agricultural technologies under climate risk and evaluate its impact on food security in Niger. We distinguish between (i) exposure to climatic disruptions, (ii) bio-physical sensitivity to such disruptions, (iii) household adaptive capacity in terms of farmers’ ability to prepare and adjust to the resulting stress, and, finally, (iv) system-level adaptive capacity that serve as enabling factors for hou sehold-level adaptation. We employ multivariate probit and instrumental variable techniques to model the selection decisions and its impact. The results clearly indicate that while the use of modern inputs and organic fertilizers significantly improves crop productivity, results are unclear for the impact of crop residues. Results also show that factors driving modern input use are different than those of crop residues and organic fertilizer which can be characterized at low investment capital r equirements, higher labour requirements and longer time for results versus modern inputs which can be characterized as higher investment capital requirements, less labour requirement and shorter time for returns. Exposure to climatic stress and bio-physical factors are identified as key factors that hinder or accelerate adoption. Results show that greater climate variability as represented by the coefficient of variation of rainfall and temperature and recent climate shocks as represented by ave rage rainfall shortfall increases use of risk-reducing inputs such as crop residue, but reduce the use of modern inputs. Results also show the key role of system-level adaptive capacity in governing input use decision. For instance people who are close to extension offices and periodic markets are more likely to use modern inputs whereas those further away are more likely to use climate-smart agricultural inputs suggesting that role extension in promoting the use of modern inputs. Results presen ted have implications for understanding and overcoming barriers to selection for each practice, distinguishing structural aspects such as exposure and sensitivity from potential interventions at the household or system levels linked to adaptive capacity.

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