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Roads, land use, and deforestation: A spatial model applied to Belize









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    Determinants of Participation in Contract Farming in Pig Production in Northern Viet Nam
    Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative: A Living from Livestock
    2008
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    The rapid growth in demand for pork in Viet Nam presents an opportunity for rural households raising pigs to improve their incomes. This market potential could be exploited to improve incomes of rural smallholders through institutional arrangements that provide improved access to livestock markets and services, through formal and informal contract arrangements. Contract arrangements, however, have explicit and implicit barriers to entry that tend to exclude smallholders, depending on the nature of the contracts. Based on data from a field survey conducted in four provinces in Northern Viet Nam in 2005-06, comprising a sample of 400 pig raising households (200 independent producers, 166 farmers with informal contracts, and 34 farmers with formal contracts with a large integrator), a multinomial logit model was used to identify the factors that determine the likelihood of engagement in formal or informal contracts. A simple probit model was subsequently developed for the determinants of engagement in informal contract arrangements.
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    Payment for forest ecosystem services through willingness to pay in Oba Hill Forest Reserve, Osun State, Nigeria
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Forest supplies several products and services and these services includes timber and non-timber products, as well as a number of intangible or non- market services. Forest ecosystem services are complicated because many of these services are difficult to evaluate in monetary terms. This study assessed the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, willingness to pay (WTP) and factors that influenced the WTP for ecosystem services in Oba Hill forest reserve, Osun State. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and interview guide was used to collect information from the respondents. A total number of 100 respondents were selected randomly in the adjoining forest communities. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and choice experiment was used to assess Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) and factors that influenced them D-Optimal design with a D-efficiency of 99.9% was developed for the choice experiment. A practical set of 9 choice sets with two product profiles and a status quo alternative were obtained. Random Parameters Mixed Multinomial Logit (MIXL) and Generalized Multinomial Logit (G-MNL) models were used to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) and the factors that influenced the WTP of an individual for the attributes of forest ecosystem services. Wildlife loss, soil fertility and cost attributes were significant at 0.1% significance level (p≤0.001). Mean WTP estimate of a household for increase in soil fertility, reduction of wildlife loss, multiples of important tree species were 8.60, 7.61 and 39.95 (Naira) per month respectively. Respondents were not willing to pay for the mitigation of weather fluctuation. Also, WTP of the respondents was mainly influenced by farming households. Therefore, this study concludes that the WTP for the ecosystem services in the study area was partly influenced by the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents. Keywords: Ecosystem services; forest reserves; generalized multinomial logit; mixed multinomial logit and willingness to pay ID: 3484151
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    Combining Sustainable Agricultural Practices Pays Off: Evidence on Welfare Effects from Northern Ghana 2016
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    Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAPs) are believed to play a vital role in addressing adverse effects of climate change and improving households’ welfare. While literature provides robust evidence on their welfare impacts in isolation, there is limited evidence on how combinations of SAPs contribute to households’ welfare. Due to complementarity and substitution effects and cost involved in adopting SAPs, combinations may have impacts that are higher or lower than individual effects. To shed light on this question, we investigate the adoption and impacts of SAPs on net crop income per acre and consumption expenditure per capita using a cross-sectional survey of 421 household and 1229 plots from northern Ghana. We employed a maximum simulated likelihood estimation of a Multinomial Endogenous Treatment Effect Model to account for observable and unobservable heterogeneity that influences SAPs adoption decisions and the outcome variables. As a departure from existing studies, our paper incorporated the effects of individual risk preferences, quantified using an experimental game with real payoffs, on the adoption and impacts of SAPs. Our results reveal that adoption decisions are affected by household and plot level characteristics including risk preferences of households. We find that adoption of SAPs significantly increase net crop income and consumption expenditure except when soil & water conservation is adopted in isolation.

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