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Regional Review on Status and Trends in Aquaculture Development in Europe - 2010 / ???????????? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????? – 2010.










Váradi, L., Lane, A., Harache, Y., Gyalog, G., Békefi, E. and P. Lengyel. Regional Review on Status and Trends in Aquaculture Development in Europe - 2010 FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular. No. 1061/1. Rome, FAO. 2010. 129 p.


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    Regional review on status and trends in aquaculture development in Europe – 2020 2022
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    This review reports on aquaculture development trends and challenges during 2000–2018 in the European Region covering 51 countries including European Union member states. Aquaculture production in the European Region is composed of marine molluscs and diadromous, marine and freshwater fish. It reached 3.4 million tonnes in 2018, while having a value of USD 16.6 billion. Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout combine to give nearly two million tonnes, with molluscs providing 0.7 million tonnes; marine fish species supplied 0.4 million tonnes and freshwater fish 0.3 million tonnes. In Europe, the strongest aquaculture growth has been seen in non-European Union states (e.g. Norway, Turkey, Russian Federation) while several European Union states have diminished production (e.g. France, Netherlands, Italy). The growth in value (5.8 percent) is higher than production (0.9 percent), which is now dominated by salmonids (nearly 60 percent), primarily Atlantic salmon. Mediterranean marine fish farming is mainly for gilthead seabream and European seabass. European cyprinid production in freshwater has increased slightly, where the Russian Federation, Czechia and Poland are the biggest producers. Mussels are the principal shellfish reared, led by Spain, followed by oysters in France and clams in Italy. While publicly quoted companies have led salmon development in Northern Europe, elsewhere aquaculture is done, with few exceptions, by SMEs and micro-enterprises. Mechanisms for financial support exist for aquaculture development throughout Europe but these have notnbeen matched by anticipated results. When unpredictable and time-consuming licensing procedures are combined with extreme competition for space and strict environmental regulations, both growth and investments are discouraged. Technology development focus has been given to structures appropriate for marine off-shore or ‘open ocean’ operation. The use of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for large operations has also developed, both for hatcheries and for farms. Treatment for diseases and parasites remains problematic. Use of the same vaccines, veterinary treatments and disinfectants is not standardised, restricting the best health and welfare practices. Access to appropriate and efficient ingredients for formulated feeds remains a key issue for European fish farming, directly influencing productivity and profitability. The European Union is the world’s largest single market for seafood and the most important destination for European aquaculture production. With preferences declared for wild products vs. farmed, the habits of the European consumer have been studied, indicating evolving influences on purchase decisions. These include the use of additives, food miles, climate change, acceptance of manufacturing practices, cost and access as well as health benefits.
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    Thematic Background Study – Genome-based biotechnologies in aquaculture 2021
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    Aquaculture is a relatively new but increasingly growing sector of agriculture. It is very important not only for economic interests but also for social and cultural significance. In many Asian countries, serving food fish at the dinner table is seen as highly prestigious. Food fish accounts for 20 percent of animal protein sources for the world population. The food fish industry involves a total of 144 million tonnes annual production with 44 million fishers and fish farmers and 2.1 million vessels, contributing USD 166 billion to the world economy and over USD 25 billion of international trade annually. Currently, aquaculture accounts for over 40 percent of food fish consumed in the world, and China is the only country where aquaculture produces more than 50 percent of consumed fish food (FAO, 2016). Aquaculture genomics officially started in the 1990s, although related genome research was conducted in the 1980s. It was signified by the first Aquaculture Genomics Workshop held in 1997 in Dartmouth, Massachusetts, United States of America. This workshop targeted a group of six species for genome research in the United States: salmonids, catfish, tilapia, striped bass, oysters and shrimps. As any other agricultural sector, sustained production requires research of basic biology, including growth, nutrition, reproduction, physiology, and genetics and genomics. One interesting observation is that all these research fields are being unified through the use of genomic technologies or, that is, they are being genomicized.
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    Regional review on status and trends in aquaculture development in Latin America and the Caribbean – 2020 2022
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    This document reviews the development of the aquaculture industry in the Latin America and the Caribbean region over the past decade. In 2018 aquaculture production in the region amounted to an estimated 3.1 million tonnes of aquatic products (excluding seaweeds) worth USD 17.2 billion at first sale. This food sector is vastly concentrated in a few countries with the combined output from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Mexico representing over 85 percent of the total regional production. Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, tilapia, whiteleg shrimp and the Chilean mussel collectively contributed 80.4 percent and 85.9 percent of the regional production by volume and value, respectively. Marine aquaculture has been the dominant production environment in the region for the past two decades, accounting for 70.1 percent of the farmed output in 2018. Production models vary widely, with a concentration of large-scale companies in Chile, while primarily small- and/or medium-size operations in Brazil, Peru and several other countries. Introduced species remain top on the list among those farmed such as tilapia and the different salmonids both of which have contributed to local livelihoods and employment. Tilapia farming has contributed significantly to food security in many countries of the region while the largest proportion of farmed salmons have been destined to the export markets. Production prospects remain promising, however the industry requires in general better governance, the adoption at all levels of appropriate technologies and best practices, and renewed efforts to guarantee environmental sustainability and social acceptance as well as competitiveness and foresight to deal with climate and market changes. The small island developing states (SIDS) face additional challenges including limited expertise, high production costs, poor seed supplies, as well as extreme and destructive weather events. The report discusses issues that require wider regional attention for the aquaculture sector to grow. Key recommendations focus on governance-related improvements highlighting the need for solid sectoral development plans, support policies, and effective rules and regulations. The promotion of a stronger cooperation among the countries in the region as well as further afield on technical matters, species diversification and equal support to smalland large-scale farming operation are identified as key elements to foster investment and help the region gain a solid position among world aquatic food producers.

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