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Pig Systems, Livelihoods and Poverty in South-East Asia: Current Status, Emerging Issues, and Ways Forward

Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative: A Living from Livestock









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    Pig Systems, Livelihoods and Poverty: Current Status, Emerging Issues, and Ways Forward
    Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative: A Living from Livestock
    2006
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    Engagement in livestock production is an important income generating activity among agricultural households in rural areas in the developing regions of the world. The rapidly increasing demand for livestock products at the global level, particularly due to increasing populations, increasing per capita incomes, and rapid urbanization in the developing countries, presents opportunities for the rural poor in these countries to participate in and benefit from such growth. On the other hand, in the s upply side of the market, new technologies as well as new organizations in production, processing, procurement and distribution systems have emerged to more efficiently meet not only the larger volumes required but also the increasing demand by consumers for food products quality and safety, apart from complying with public rules and regulations governing the trade in livestock products. Within this environment, there is no automatic link between the engagement in livestock as livelihood source by rural households and the increasing demand for livestock products. Strong market links between livestock producers in the rural areas and the growing markets for livestock products within the economy is a necessary condition for taking advantage of these opportunities for increased incomes by rural livestock keepers.
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    Book (series)
    Mapping supply and demand for animal-source foods to 2030 2011
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    Around 2.6 billion people in the developing world are estimated to have to make a living on less than $2 a day and of these, about 1.4 billion are ‘extremely’ poor; surviving on less than $1.25 a day. Nearly three quarters of the extremely poor – that is around 1 billion people – live in rural areas and, despite growing urbanization, more than half of the ‘dollar-poor’ will reside in rural areas until about 2035. Most rural households depend on agriculture as part of their livelihood and livesto ck commonly form an integral part of their production system. On the other hand, to a large extent driven by increasing per capita incomes, the livestock sector has become one of the fastest developing agricultural sub-sectors, exerting substantial pressure on natural resources as well as on traditional production (and marketing) practices. In the face of these opposing forces, guiding livestock sector development on a pathway that balances the interests of low and high income households and regions as well as the interest of current and future generations poses a tremendous challenge to policymakers and development practioners. Furthermore, technologies are rapidly changing while at the same time countries are engaging in institutional ‘experiments’ through planned and un-planned restructuring of their livestock and related industries, making it difficult for anyone to keep abreast with current realities. This ‘Working Paper’ Series pulls together into a single series different strands of work on the wide range of topics covered by the Animal Production and Health Division with the aim of providing ‘fresh’ information on developments in various regions of the globe, some of which is hoped may contribute to foster sustainable and equitable livestock sector development. In 2006 the FAO Global Perspective Studies Unit revised their estimates of prospective developments in food demand and consumption to 2030/2050 (FAO, 2006b). In this paper we take the estimates of supp ly and demand for animal-source foods and disaggregate them spatially for the years 2000 and 2030. By so doing we are able to present detailed maps and tables of change in supply and demand that are of direct use to researchers and decision makers in the livestock sector.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Business and livelihoods in african livestock
    Investments to overcome information gaps
    2014
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    Poverty is widespread in Africa, but the continent is fast growing, with the consumption of animal protein skyrocketing, in particular for relatively low-value, low-processed livestock products. Meanwhile, in rural areas, the majority of households are livestock keepers, many of whom are poor. This growth in demand for animal protein can provide major business opportunities for livestock producers, with implications for poverty reduction. While there is heterogeneity among livestock keepers, clustering them into homogenous groups is useful to guide policy and investment decisions that stimulate a market-driven and inclusive growth of the sector. A small share of livestock keepers, from between 5 to 20 percent, depending on the country, can be considered business-oriented with incentives to expand their livestock production and tap into the growing market for animal protein. These keep relative large herds and derive a significant share of their cash income from accessing and utilizing livestock markets. The remainder of livestock keepers can be defined as livelihood-oriented: they keep animals more for the many livelihoods services they provide — such as insurance, manure and hauling services — than for selling meat, milk and other livestock products to the market. The reason is simple: on average, they keep 1.60 Tropical Livestock Units (TLUs), which is equivalent to about three beef cattle per household or about 0.6 TLU per household me mber, and, therefore, they cannot derive large benefits from regularly selling their surplus production to the market.

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