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FAO rapid qualitative risk assessment

Risk of H5 high pathogenicity avian influenza introduction in Central and South America and the Caribbean

FAO. 2023. FAO rapid qualitative risk assessment. Risk of H5 high pathogenicity avian influenza introduction in Central and South America and the Caribbean. FAO Animal Health Risk Analysis – Assessment, Issue No. 9. Rome, FAO.

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    Following H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in the Republic of Cameroon in May and September 2016, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) prepared a qualitative assessment in order to evaluate the risks of the introduction of the virus into neighbouring countries with Cameroon that have so far not reported occurrence of the disease through poultry movements and trade relations (i.e. the Central African Republic, the Republic of Chad, the Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Equatorial Guinea and the Gabonese Republic). The Federal Republic of Nigeria has been affected by H5N1 HPAI outbreaks in poultry since December 2014 and circulation of the virus is considered to be endemic. Though bordering Cameroon, Nigeria was, therefore, not included in the assessment given that the virus is already present there. The qualitative assessment is based on information available as of 15 September 2016 and will be revised as circumstances change. The reader should also note that the uncertainty in the assessment of the different levels of likelihood remains high, since there is need for a better understanding of the poultry sector at local, national and regional levels as well as poultry movement patterns and related issues to provide a more precise assessment.
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    The history of the battle to control HPAI in Viet Nam is relatively short but within the past 10 years there have been many insights developed, as well as some twists and turns in the road to the current level of success. As the concerted HPAI effort supported by FAO is coming to an end, albeit to be adapted into a broader One Health approach to animal health and zoonotic diseases, it was considered timely that a retrospective overview of the programme be produced to capture key elements and lessons that have arisen. A key adjunct for this retrospective is the FAO document ‘Lessons from HPAI – a technical stocktaking of outputs, outcomes, best practices and lessons learned from the fight against highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia 2005-2011’. Consistent with that stocktake, this retrospective on the HPAI control effort in Viet Nam does not attempt to be a comprehensive compilation of all the outputs and outcomes from the HPAI programme, but is rather a synopsis that captures the key experiences and challenges faced in Viet Nam in addressing this complex disease problem, concentrating on the USAID inputs but also with reference to other project areas as appropriate. This document examines the HPAI situation in Viet Nam at several points during the last 8 years through the prism of activities and outcomes in key areas such as coordination, surveillance, laboratory services, vaccination, biosecurity, socio-economics and communications and advocacy.
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    Evidence-based risk management along the livestock production and market chain
    Lao People's Democratic Republic
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    The demand for poultry and poultry products is increasing in Luangprabang and its surrounding provinces. To meet this demand, the province now imports a large amount of poultry from neighbouring countries. Importing poses a significant risk to the vulnerable local poultry population with the introduction of threats such as transboundary animal diseases, which includes highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Luangprabang, located in the north of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) has reported HPAI outbreaks in the past and the risk of reintroduction is always high. In order to reduce this risk, the Department of Livestock and Fisheries (DLF), the Government of Lao PDR, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have implemented ‘evidence-based risk management along the livestock production and market chain.’ In addition, related activities were also implemented in three high-risk villages of Luangprabang with support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Australian Government.

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