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Adapting to climate change: the ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture in the Near East and North Africa region – Workshop Proceedings: FAO/WorldFish Workshop, Abbassa, Egypt, 10-12 November 2009










Curtis, L.; Beveridge, M.C.M.; el-Gamal, A.R.; Mannini, P. (eds). Adapting to climate change: the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Near East and North Africa Region ¿ Workshop Proceedings. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular. No. 1066. Rome, FAO. 2011. 130p.


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    The Expert Workshop on the development and use of indicators for an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) was held in Rome from 20 to 24 April 2009 under the EAF-Nansen project (Strengthening the Knowledge Base for and Implementing an Ecosystem Approach to Marine Fisheries in Developing Countries). It was attended by 13 participants from Africa, Europe, Australia and Oceania, North America and FAO. The main objectives of the expert workshop were to identify suitable indicators for fish eries management, discuss the properties of these indicators, and provide advice on methodologies for the derivation, integration/aggregation and visualization of the indicators. Emphasis was placed on applicability of the derived indicators in developing countries and/or data-poor situations. It was noted that in spite of the abundance of indicators for fisheries management in the scientific literature, there is limited practical guidance as regards their relevance and cost-effectiv eness. In preparation for the expert workshop, three expert reviews were commissioned by FAO to establish what relevant indicators are available for EAF, their properties, and whether/where they have been used. Each review was intended to provide a structured assessment of available indicators for fisheries management classified in accordance with the hierarchical tree framework for identifying major issues in fisheries. For each indicator, an assessment of its properties in relation to data availability, practicality, cost-effectiveness, comprehension, acceptability by stakeholders, and robustness was made. The adopted definition for an Indicator was taken as ¿Something that is measured (not necessarily numerically) and used to track an operational objective¿ and it was noted that any indicator that does not relate to an operational objective is not useful in this context. The participants concluded that the three background papers provided an excellent starting point for an FAO Technical Paper on the development and use of indicators in EAF. A case study of the Tanzanian mixed coastal fishery was used to test whether the list of indicators was flexible enough to cover various situations (data rich/poor, high/low capacity, etc.) and how the trigger and reference points would differ depending on the objectives of each fishery. Using the indicators provided in the three reviews and the Tanzanian case study, the workshop defined a list of prior ity indicators. The workshop was also informed on the IndiSeas (Indicators for the Seas) Programme, a EUR-OCEANS European Network of Excellence working group to gather and share indicator expertise across marine ecosystems and member institutions. Information was also received on a programme on incorporating the human dimension to the ecosystem approach to fisheries, and specifically on indicators for supply elasticity. It was noted that there are several areas where these projects c ould be linked with benefits to parties. The participants agreed on a roadmap for further development and refinement of the derived indicators as inputs for the FAO Technical Paper and to organize a special workshop on indicators for ecosystem surveys using research vessels. It was also agreed to develop a template for reporting on the implementation of EAF for inclusion within the reporting on the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF).
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    Transition towards an ecosystem approach to fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea
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    2022
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    FAO has promoted the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) as an appropriate framework for the sustainable development and management of fisheries worldwide. With a view to contribute to the identification of lessons and good practices for EAF implementation, this publication documents nine case studies that attempted to put into practice some of the key principles and tools of the approach in the Mediterranean Sea. The case studies were selected to cover a broad range of contexts including smallscale and industrial fisheries operating at local, national and sub-regional scales. It was not within the scope of the publication to evaluate the level of implementation of the ecosystem approach. A specific tool for monitoring implementation is proposed and exemplified. Case studies were analysed with a view to draw preliminary lessons regarding the enabling factors that facilitated the progress made as well as the challenges faced in the transition towards EAF-based management systems. Attention is drawn to key enabling conditions such as favourable policies, legislation and regulatory frameworks, the existence of regional mechanisms for cooperation, favourable market dynamics and social processes, and the relatively low complexity of the fishery systems analysed. A set of factors emerged that contributed to progress during implementation, such as the clear definition of fishing rights, the enhancement of mechanisms for compliance, scientific monitoring and adaptation of management measures, as well as the explicit consideration of biological and socioeconomic aspects in management actions. Further progress in the transition towards sustainable management systems is hampered by external and internal factors. External factors are related, for instance, to environmental changes, the poor regulation and control of competing sectors, consumer behaviour and the governance environment. Issues such as stakeholder representation, knowledge gaps and the availability of sustainable sources of funding are among common internal factors. The authors also discuss how slow progress in the implementation of management plans can generate discredit with the institutions and add additional challenges for any future initiatives to engage stakeholders in participatory management. The case-based results and lessons of how the ecosystem approach to fisheries was considered, developed and implemented in the fisheries discussed in this publication not only contribute to the documentation of current practices in the Mediterranean but may also guide future attempts to further develop the field.
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    The Ecosystem approach to aquaculture mangament handbook aims to provide skills and tools to develop in stakeholders and facilitators the necessary know-how to develop an Ecosystem approach to aquaculture managment plans targeting sustainable and climate change resilient aquaculture. The handbook will provide the necessary knowledge on how to:
    • manage aquaculture under holistic approaches;
    • address aquaculture issues and challenges;
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    • work cooperatively with other stakeholders;
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