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Wood volume and woody biomass: review of FRA 2000 estimates

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    Wood volume and woody biomass: review of FRA 2000 estimates 2003
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    Wood volume and woody biomass levels are important indicators of the forests’ potential to provide wood and to sequester carbon: the role of forests as major terrestrial sinks and sources of carbon dioxide has received significant additional attention since the adoption of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). Volume and biomass statistics were among the most important parameters for FRA 2000. Statistics were compiled country by country fol lowing standard terms and definitions. Information to support estimates was not always available for all the countries, and assumptions and extrapolations were necessary in many cases. In attempt to clarify the resulting information and to improve its reliability and accuracy, FRA carried out a systematic review of the calculations underlying the volume and biomass figures (for developing countries), as presented in table 7 Annex 3 of the FAO Forestry Paper 140, Global Forest Resources Assessmen t 2000, Main Report. Industrialized countries were considered separately and estimates for these counties were taken from the UNECE 2000 Main report for Europe, CIS, North America, Australia, Japan and New Zealand. This working paper describes the main steps of the review process, from the data collection and the descriptions of the methodology used, to the presentation and explanations of the results. Conclusions and recommendations are also included in the last section of the working paper. Finally, detailed appendices provide comprehensive tables and an example of country brief lay out where results are presented and explained country by country.
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    Term Financing in Agriculture: A Review of Relevant Experiences (Volume I - Main Report, Volume II - Case Studies, Executive Summary)
    Occasional Paper N. 14 - October 2003
    2003
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    Rural term and investment finance has received little attention by donors and the micro-finance industry over the past decade. This prompted FAO's Rural Finance Group and Investment Centre to jointly carry out a multi-country study on innovative approaches to financing the investments of small farmers. The research was co-funded by the World Bank. Due to the scarcity of literature on empirical examples or best practices, a number of case studies were conducted which illustrate how a variety of f inancial and non-financial institutions in different countries and regions have tackled the provision of term finance to agriculture. Volume I (Main Report) of the study illustrates the use of different financial instruments such as term loans, leasing, equity, deposits and matching grants for financing agricultural term investments. The focus is on innovative financing technologies, institutional settings and contractual arrangements to manage risks, reduce transaction costs and overcome collateral constraints. Particular attention is paid to the financing of long-term investments such as tree crops. In addition, some complementary measures and policy options for enhancing the environment for both the supply and effective demand for term finance are discussed. Volume II presents ten case studies from Bolivia, India, the Philippines, South Africa and Thailand. The Executive Summary is targeted to professional officers working in government institutions and internation al financing agencies. It summarizes the main lessons and discusses several issues and options for expanding the "financial frontier" of term finance in a sustainable way.
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