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Fertilizer use by crop in Ghana








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    Evolution of country-specific investment requirements of agricultural and rural extension and advisory services 2018
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    The developing world witnessed an extraordinary period of food crop productivity growth over the past 50 years, despite increasing land scarcity and rising land values. Although populations had more than doubled, the production of cereal crops tripled during this period, with only a 30 percent increase in land area cultivated. The Green Revolution brought high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansions of irrigation infrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution of improved seeds, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, yet was characterized by regional differences in performance (Wik, Pingali and Brocai, 2008). Within this context two important externalities emerged: the environmental and the socioeconomic impacts of the change. The slowdown in yield growth that has been observed since the mid-1980s can partially be attributed to degradation of agricultural resources. At the same time, transition from traditional agriculture, just like the industrial revolution in the 19th century and the informatics revolution in the turn of the 21st century, also increased economic disparities, with a widening gap between rich and poor. The poorest producers are the most vulnerable to losing their farmland due to debt, while the increased level of mechanization removed a large source of employment from the rural economy (Oasa, 1987). Faced by these risks, farmers are often returning to subsistence cultivation, rendering them more vulnerable to weather variability due to climate change. Some regions were able to adopt Green Revolution technologies faster than others for political and geographical reason, so inter-regional economic disparities also increased. For many of the currently more than 1.1 billion people that are living in poverty, economic growth based primarily on agriculture and on non-farm rural activities, is essential to improve their livelihoods. The majority of the poor (over 70 percent live in rural areas), includes subsistence farmers, herders, fishers, migrant workers, artisans and indigenous people (IFAD, 2011). Promoting agricultural growth in rural areas and giving rural people better access to land, water, credit, health and education, is essential to alleviate poverty and hunger, to feed the growing population and address its changing consumption patterns. (FAO, 2009). Yet, agricultural growth will depend in the future less on input and land increase, but increasingly on total factor productivity, i.e. the performance of institutions, including research, extension and advisory services, and infrastructure (roads, ICTs, etc.) (Fuglie, 2012).
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    Fertilizer use by crop in Egypt 2005
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    Agricultural land accounts for only 3.5 percent of the land area of Egypt. Two thirds of the agricultural land is alluvial soil, fertilized for thousands of years by the Nile floods, and one third is land recovered since the 1950s. Rainfall is minimal and almost all the agricultural land is irrigated. Soil salinity and water logging are important problems in the reclaimed areas. Sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation are common on the recovered area and fertigation is used on 13 percent of the land. There are up to three harvests per year, the overall cropping intensity being 180 percent. Crop yields and rates of fertilizer use are relatively high. In order to provide for a large and increasing population, while economizing scarce resources and minimizing adverse environmental impacts, the efficiency of use of both fertilizers and water needs to be improved. Continuing efforts must be made to communicate information on the best practices to a generally receptive farmer audience. Farm ers’ Field Schools make an important contribution to the transfer of information.
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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Seychelles 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. Seychelles is a small island state in the western Indian Ocean, which has developed a high-income economy and eliminated extreme poverty. Agriculture contributes about 2.2% of the country’s gross domestic product with tourism and the fisheries and seafood industries serving as the main pillars of the economy. Agricultural land occupies about 3.4% of the total land area of the country. A large portion of the land area (88.4%) is covered by forest mainly natural and established plantations for commercial purposes. Seychelles is divided into two large agro-climatic zones based on biophysical characteristics- mountainous/forest zone high ground and coastal plateau. In terms of agriculture, two agroecological zones can be distinguished mainly based on soil: upland and sandy soil. Main cropping systems includes food crop-based systems and perennial crop-based systems. Livestock production include goat, pig and chicken. Most crop production is under rainfed or irrigation system. Most farms are under 2 ha with backyard farming done to supplement household food or income. The main crops and products include coconut, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potato, cassava, banana and tuna. Seychelles has the highest rate of overweight and obesity in Africa due to the shift from predominantly unprocessed traditional foods to a more westernised dietary intake consisting mainly of refined and processed foods. most greenhouse gas (GHG) emission come from the energy sector, followed by waste and agriculture which contributes 0.79% of the total. Seychelles has outlined in its nationally determined contributions mitigation actions in the forestry, energy and transport, and waste sectors. In agriculture, actions to mitigate climate change include: promotion of agricultural practises such as agroforestry which would involve mainstreaming strategies to limit deforestation and increase the sink capacity of forests. Challenges for the agricultural sector include (i) deforestation and unsuccessful intensification, (ii) uncontrolled urbanisation, land clearing, bush fires and population pressure, and (iii) high reliance on food imports. Agriculture in Seychelles is limited by a lack of arable land and extreme rainfall patterns and meteorological events like tropical storms, floods and droughts. Climate change poses serious challenges to the country such as uncontrolled economic and social consequences of floods, land degradation, sea-level rise, coastal erosion, declining agricultural yields, health vulnerability, and increased occurrence of drought. CSA technologies and practises present opportunities for addressing climate change challenges as well as for economic growth and development of the agriculture sector. Identified CSA practises in use in the country include: crop production under shade houses, inter cropping, use of organic manure and mulch, use of weather information, water control through irrigation, anti-erosion arrangement, windbreak and shelter, and use of climate-adapted seeds. Seychelles has several key institutions and policies aimed at supporting and increasing agriculture productivity and advancing CSA practises. These include government ministries and agency structures of ministries, firms operating in the agricultural sector, academic institutions, specialised laboratories and agricultural research institutes and training centres. The Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change (MEECC) serving as the country’s UNFCCC focal point and nationally designated authority to the Green Climate Fund is responsible for country’s climate change plans and policies. On the agriculture front the ministry of agriculture and fisheries is the key government institution for partnerships for climate-smart agriculture work in the communities as well as for policy and investment related issues through the national agricultural investment plan. A number of csa-related policies and strategies have been developed: National Programme on climate change strategy, national strategy for disaster risk management, national biodiversity strategy and action plan and the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into the country’s strategic plan- a definitive document intended to guide land-use management up to the year 2040. A number of projects that foster the development of knowledge and evidence on the effectiveness of climate smart agriculture in improving food security, mitigating climate change and improving the adaptive capacities of production systems and populations in Seychelles have received support from various donors and financing schemes. In addition, AfDB, COMESA, FAO, EU, IFAD, etc. have invested hugely in several aspects of the climate/agricultural sector of Seychelles which also include the development and promotion of csa innovations. From various sources of climate finance available internationally, Seychelles is currently eligible for only a limited number of these and has not wholly accessed major funding instruments such as the Green Climate Fund and Adaptation Fund. The county is a small island nation whose prospects rely heavily on external demand, especially tourism. This poses major challenges for diversification and resilience. Its commitment to csa is relatively new with limited institutions and sources of funding.

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