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Restoring the Environment and Livelihoods of Smallholder Farmers Affected by Illegal Mining in Ghana - GCP/GHA/031/JPN









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    Meeting
    Human exposure to mercury in fish in mining areas in the Philippines
    Country Paper proposed by The Philippines
    2002
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    Mercury pollution in most parts of the regions in the world are caused by the release into the environment of metallic mercury used in the recovery of gold by the crude method of amalgamation. Currently, countries such as in Brazil, Ghana, Tanzania, Philippines, Indonesia, China and Vietnam with roughly 10 million people are estimated to be involved in these activities. In China alone, 13 % of the total gold output is said to be produced from the amalgamation process which accounts for 20 tons o f Hg released into the environment. China ranks fifth in the world gold production output with South Africa having the largest total gold production. Presently, in 55 countries engaged in small-scale mining activity it was estimated that 8.25-10.1 million people have been directly involved with an additional 80-100 million being dependent on this activity for their livelihood. For 10 Asia-Pacific countries, it was estimated that total employment from small-scale mining is from 6.0-6.6 million wh ich would account for 73% of the global estimates.
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    Restoration of productive landscapes through management of trees on-farms in the off reserve landscape through tree registration and climate smart farming systems in Ghana
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Ghana has a total land area of 238,540 km2 and approximately 15% of the country has been set aside as forest reserves, wildlife parks, and the remaining 85% is owned by stools, skins and individuals across the country. All naturally occurring trees in off reserve landscapes are vested in the state but they occur in individual and community lands and farms. Most of Ghana’s agricultural system embraces the retention of trees during the course of cultivation with trees integrated in a mixture with crops. In the past, farmers destroyed these trees because their cocoa farms were destroyed by felling of trees for timber and they could not get compensation or any support from the state. To achieve Ghana’s Forest policy goals and objectives of the forest Plantation strategy, Ghana is piloting a programme to provide legal support for farmers, optimize the productivity and sustainability of smallholder farming systems by developing appropriate technologies that involve trees (incorporation of trees-on farm within 3.75 million hectares) and enhances connectivity and biodiversity between the agricultural and forest landscapes. A pilot programme to register all planted and naturally occurring trees at the district level has begun with recent support from Climate Investment Fund through Ghana’s Forest investment programme (GFIP) to provide options for tree tenure regimes, tree ownership and benefit sharing mechanisms for farmers to plant more trees. This paper highlights the importance of trees on farm for landscape restoration, legal framework and the procedures for tree registration, identified strengths and weaknesses and potential for climate change mitigation and adaptation as well as sustained reduction in degradation and deforestation whilst increasing productivity per hectare for farmers. Keywords: Landscape management, Deforestation and forest degradation, Climate change, Agriculture, Sustainable forest management ID: 3624089
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    Bottlenecks, stresses and risks in the cocoa supply chain in Ghana: recommendations to increase its resilience 2023
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    Cocoa is a key sector of Ghana’s economy, contributing about 2 percent of GDP as well as providing a livelihood, or part thereof, for about 30 percent of the population. This study, based on stakeholder answers to detailed questionnaires and conducted from October 2021 to April 2022, aims to identify and evaluate risks as well as major bottlenecks, threatening and constraining the cocoa supply chain and limiting its resilience. The results show that extreme temperatures, droughts, and pests and disease are the most important risks and stressors that cocoa farmers face. This is also reflected in what stakeholders considered the most important bottlenecks, i.e. inadequate rainfall, the lack of irrigation and weather insurances, and limited domestic processing capacity. Climate change is an important driver of some of these risks and stressors. Key recommendations to strengthen the resilience of the cocoa supply chain in Ghana, that emerge from the study’s findings, include building preventive and anticipative resilience by investing in climate information services and promoting agroforestry; building absorptive resilience through weather insurance and customized finance; building adaptive resilience through irrigation programmes, and; building transformative resilience through improving ICT systems, increasing domestic capacities for processing cocoa beans and investing in productivity.

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