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Conservation agriculture for smallholder farmers in dryland areas, Kenya










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    Book (stand-alone)
    Compendium of community and indigenous strategies for climate change adaptation
    Focus on addressing water scarcity in agriculture
    2021
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    Climate change is a major challenge for life on Earth. It is mainly manifested through modifications of average temperature, rainfall intensity and patterns, winds and solar radiation. These modifications significantly affect basic resources, such as land and water resources. Populations at disproportionately higher risk of adverse consequences with global warming of 1.5°C and beyond include disadvantaged and vulnerable populations, some indigenous peoples, and local communities dependent on agricultural or coastal livelihoods (IPCC, 2018). Therefore, adaptation measures are recommended in order to cope with climate change. Indigenous peoples have developed practices for climate change adaptation, based on their long-term experience with adverse climatic effects. There was thus a need to identify such practices as they could be effectively mainstreamed in community-based adaptation programmes. This report makes an inventory of indigenous and community adaptation practices across the world. The inventory was mainly done through literature review, field work and meetings with selected organisations. The case studies documented are categorized in five technologies and practices themes, including: (1) Weather forecasting and early warning systems; (2) Grazing and Livestock management; (3) Soil and Water Management (including cross slope barriers); (4) Water harvesting (and storage practices); (5) Forest Management (as a coping strategy to water scarcity), and; (6) Integrated wetlands and fisheries management. These were then related to the corresponding main agro-ecological zones (AEZ), namely arid, semi-arid, sub-humid, humid, highlands and coastal and wetlands. The AEZ approach was considered as an entry-point to adopting or adapting an existing indigenous strategy to similar areas. Challenges that threaten the effectiveness of indigenous and community adaption strategies were identified. These challenges include climate change itself (which is affecting the indicators and resources used by communities), human and livestock population growth (which is increasing pressure on natural resources beyond their resilience thresholds), current institutional and political settings (which limit migrants’ movements and delimits pieces of usable land per household), cultural considerations of communities (such as taboos and spiritual beliefs), and the lack of knowledge transfer to younger communities. Indigenous knowledge provides a crucial foundation for community-based adaptation strategies that sustain the resilience of social-ecological systems at the interconnected local, regional and global scales. In spite of challenges and knowledge gaps, these strategies have the potential of being strengthened through the adoption and adaptation of introduced technology from other communities or modern science. Attention to these strategies is already being paid by several donor-funded organisations, although in an uncoordinated manner.
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    Document
    Zero / minimum tillage in rice-wheat system in Nepal 2013
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    By tradition, in the Terai region farmers believe that wheat planting needs well-prepared and pulverized soil for high yields, carrying out several plowings and harrowing. However, after rice, land is marshy or wet and ploughing is not possible, delaying wheat planting. Zero or minimum tillage provides minimum disturbance of the soil by placing the seeds directly in furrows. Seeds are then covered with well-decomposed compost and rice stubbles left in the field. Some advantages of zero-tillage is the reduction of about 30% in the use of water, compared to conventional tillage, as well as an improvement in the physical properties of soil. In addition, by planting wheat in time, higher yields may be obtained.
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    Document
    Labour saving technologies and practices: Conservation Agriculture 2011
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    This technology includes features of conservation agriculture, conservation tillage, conservation tillage equipment including the -hand operated jab planter- and features of cover crops. All those practices are labour saving technologies.

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