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Planning an extended climate and weather forecasting system for hazard preparedness in agriculture, Bangladesh










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    Pakistan. Initial Floods Emergency Response Plan August 2010 2010
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    Over the course of July and early August 2010, Pakistan experienced the worst monsoon-related floods in living memory. Heavy rainfall, flash floods and riverine floods have devastated large parts of Pakistan since the arrival of seasonal monsoon rains on 22 July. Assessments of losses and damages are ongoing, but estimates place the number of affected people at more than 14 million. Over 1,200 people have died, and at least 288,000 homes have been damaged or destroyed. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province, intense rains during the last week of July and in early August were compounded by the swelling of major rivers due to rainwater surging down from the highland areas. The Pakistan Meteorological Department reports that within one week in late July, KPK received 9,000 millimetres of rainfall - ten times as much as the province normally receives in the course of an entire year. Baluchistan, Pakistan-Administered Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan, also experienced extreme weather, resu lting in widespread losses and damages. As the flood waters began to slowly recede in the northern provinces, rivers continued to swell to unprecedented levels and travel southwards by way of the Indus River. By early August, flood waters breached the river bank in at least eight districts of Punjab, devastating homes, and crops and livestock. At least eight million people in Punjab have been affected by the disaster. The flood wave continues to make its way through the southern province o f Sindh, where millions more are expected to suffer from the combined impact of torrential rains and unprecedented water levels in the rivers. The Government, especially deploying the Armed Forces' logistical capacity, has led the response to the disaster with the deployment of preparedness, rescue and relief actions. Hundreds of thousands have been rescued or preventively evacuated from riverine areas. In light of the devastation caused by the floods and the ongoing threat to lives and live lihoods, the Government (through its National Disaster Management Authority) requested the United Nations agencies and the humanitarian community to prepare an initial floods emergency response plan. Response Plan Key Parameters Affected population 14 million people Baluchistan Federally Administered Tribal Areas Gilgit-Baltistan Affected areas Khyber Pakthunkhwa Pakistan-Administered Kashmir Punjab Sindh Food Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Key sectors for response Health Shelter/Non-Food Items Total funding requested $459 million While the Government of Pakistan (National Disaster Management Authority and the Provincial Disaster Management Authorities) will lead the relief and recovery activities in flood-affected areas, the humanitarian community has been asked to support the response by covering gaps where the needs exceed the government’s response capacity. This means that the humanitarian community will be assisting only a portion of the overall caseload of affected peopl e, focusing on the most severely affected. The Humanitarian Country Team (HCT) expects that critical needs of the severely affected families will include food, clean drinking water and purification materials, emergency health services, tents and shelter kits, cooking sets, mosquito nets, and other non-food items (NFI). Over the medium to long term, the food security situation in the country is likely to be affected by the significant loss of crops and agricultural land. Compounding the deli very of this aid will be the issue of access to areas where destroyed infrastructure has made it impossible for aid to reach people by road. In addition, the security situation in some of the affected areas – especially parts of KPK – remains unpredictable. Considering the size of the area hit by the floods, the number of people who will be found to need assistance is expected to rise as assessments continue and access improves. The combined population of the affected districts is around 43 m illion (out of a total estimated Pakistan population of 168 million). Currently, UN agencies, NGOs and the International Organization for Migration are planning to assist vulnerable flood-affected people in up to seven different geographical areas (Baluchistan, Punjab, Federally Administered Tribal Area, Gilgit Baltistan, KPK, Pakistan-Administered Kashmir, Sindh). The emergency response plan therefore seeks US$460 million1 to enable international partners (UN organizations and non-governme ntal organizations [NGOs]) to support the Government of Pakistan in addressing the needs of flood-affected families for the duration of the immediate relief period. The plan will be revised within 30 days to reflect assessed needs as the situation evolves and will include strategies for assisting people with early recovery from the floods.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    SAHEL WEATHER AND CROP SITUATION - October 1998 1998
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    The rainy season is nearing its end after abundant rainfall in September. Following decreased rains in late August, precipitation was generally widespread and above normal over most producing areas of the Sahel during the first dekad of September. Torrential rains were again registered in several areas of Niger where they caused flooding. Rains remained abundant during the second dekad, except in southern Mauritania, but they decreased significantly during the last dekad. Rains became abundant o n southern islands of Cape Verde in mid to late September. Rainfall was particularly abundant in Guinea-Bissau. The latest Meteosat satellite image for the first few days of October indicates that cloud cover is clearly moving southwards, marking the end of the rainy season in most northern areas. Reflecting good rainfall, crop prospects are generally favourable in Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and in Chad except in the Sudanian zone affected by extensive flooding. In The Gambia and Senegal, c rop prospects improved following regular rains since August but in northern Senegal additional rains are needed in October as the rainy season started late this year. In Mauritania, growing conditions were mostly favourable for rainfed crops in September. Crop prospects have improved in Cape Verde following increased rains in September. They are uncertain in Guinea-Bissau as the impact of civil disturbances on plantings and other agricultural activities is not clear. Joint FAO/CILSS Crop Assessm ent Missions are scheduled from mid-October to estimate with national services the 1998 cereal production. FAO's tentative assessment of yield forecast for cereals in the Sahelian countries is shown in Annex I.
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    SAHEL WEATHER AND CROP SITUATION REPORT - September 2000 2000
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    Following generally widespread and abundant precipitation over the main agricultural zones of the Sahel in July, rains remained abundant over the western half of the Sahel in early August, decreased in mid-August but resumed in late August. Rains were particularly abundant during the first dekad of August in Senegal (even causing flooding in several areas), The Gambia and Guinea Bissau, during the second dekad in Mauritania and during the third dekad in Mali. In the centre of the Sahel, precipit ation remained below normal in Burkina Faso, except in the south and west. In Niger, below normal rainfall was registered in late August while in Chad, growing conditions were favourable in the Sudanian zone but unfavourable in the Sahelian zone. Satellite images for the first dekad of September shows that cloud coverage remained over most agricultural zones of the Sahel but that intensity of the rains decreased significantly except in south-western Senegal, Gambia and Chad. Rainfall is notably well below normal in northern and south-eastern Senegal, western Mali and most parts of Niger. Crops are generally developing satisfactorily in the western half of the Sahel region. Reduced rains affected crop development in central and eastern Burkina Faso, most parts of Niger and the Sahelian zone of Chad. Improved rains are needed in these areas to avoid water stress or crop failure. Following good rains in July, pastures have regenerated satisfactorily throughout the pastoral zone s of the Sahel. Grasshopper attacks are reported in Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal. Small scale Desert Locust breeding is in progress in southern and central Mauritania. Some locusts are probably present and breeding in the Adrar des Iforas of Mali and in Aïr of Niger.

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