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Institutional changes for agricultural and rural development in the CEEC and CIS region







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    Food security analysis and policies for transition countries 2006
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    This article explore the characteristics of food security in the context of the economies in transition. Those special characteristics derive from the “ legacies” of the socialist systems both economy-wide ones and others specific to agriculture and the food sector. Food insecurity in transition countries is considered predominantly “ transitory” , while social safety nets dating back to the socialist years provide some cushion. Market failures and other institutional constraints are prevalent, inhibiting the process towards improvement of the food security situation. Conflict takes a heavy toll in terms of hunger and malnutrition in economies in transition and macro level factors are at work to determine food security outcomes. At the same time socialist legacies determine differences in food security outcomes between transition and developing countries beyond what would be explained by income differences.
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    Re-inventing forestry agencies. Experiences of institutional restructuring in Asia and the Pacific 2008
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    Does a quantum leap make more sense than a gradual transition? Is private better than public, or small better than large? Does devolution mean losing power or gaining control - and for who? Should forest protection and production - regulation and implementation - be held apart or brought together? Reinventing forestry institutions is fraught with perils and pitfalls, targets and intents, but all institutions must travel this path if they are to remain relevant in the flux and flow of the modern world. With new prescriptions for conservation and wider changes in society and its demands on forests, the institutions responsible for forest management must compete with and complement other sectoral interests to prove their worth to society. Institutional restructuring or "reinvention" may be necessary to grasp opportunities and deny failure its chance. Experiences of reinvention from nine forestry institutions in eight countries are included in this publication - China, India, Malaysia, Nep al, New Zealand, the Philippines, the United States of America and Viet Nam. The breadth of experience in restructuring these and other forestry institutions is summarized in additional papers. It is hoped that other institutions contemplating reinvention will benefit through better understanding of the issues, challenges and opportunities inherent in reinventing forestry agencies.
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    Transformations in agriculture and their implications for rural development 2007
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    The paper reviews the implications for rural development of current transformations in agriculture. It first identifies some of the driving forces - in addition to the impact of rising incomes in some but not all developing countries - behind the transformation process: changing market chains, shifts in public policy, OECD agricultural policies and HIV/AIDS. It then discusses some strategic issues for assisting the rural sector and small farms in developing countries: increasing the productivity of food staples, diversification into higher value products, organizing small farmer for marketing, agricultural services, non-farm opportunities and migration and targeting the vulnerable. It emphasizes the need for integrated interventions if small farm development is to offer a viable pro-poor option for agricultural development.

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