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Human exposure to mercury in fish in mining areas in the Philippines

Country Paper proposed by The Philippines








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    Project
    Restoring the Environment and Livelihoods of Smallholder Farmers Affected by Illegal Mining in Ghana - GCP/GHA/031/JPN 2021
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    Ghana is the second largest cocoa producer and exporter in the world, together with Côte d’Ivoire, and produces about 70 percent of the world’s cocoa. The country’s cocoa industry employs approximately 800 000 farm families and generates about USD 2 billion in foreign exchange annually. However, illegal small scale gold mining in the country, popularly referred to as galamsey , has resulted in the destruction of cocoa farms, loss of forest cover and biodiversity, and the rise of land and water pollution. Cocoa productivity has also been decreasing as a result of climate change, unsustainable farming practices, ageing cocoa trees, and low soil fertility, among other things. Against this background, the project aimed to promote climate resilience and sustainable cocoa production, using successional and diversified cocoa based agroforestry, and to restore the environment and livelihoods of smallholder cocoa farmers affected by illegal mining. The project was implemented in Kwabiribiem Municipal District and in selected communities in Denkyembour District.
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    Article
    Reforestation on ex mining reclamation area
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Ex-mining land is categorized as land with a high level of degradation. The loss of biodiversity, low soil fertility, loss several layer of soil horizon, very unbalance texture, and even contamination can occur due to mining activities. Reforestation of mining land has been carried out with the approaches of improving the physical properties of the soil, selecting plant types, and improving soil biology in ex-gold mining land in Bogor. The addition of compost significantly increased organic matter content, C/N ratio, macro nutrients (N,P,K) content and improving soil texture. The application of Mycorrhiza and rhizobium significantly increase the growth of forest plant such as trembesi (Samanea saman), gmelina (Anthocepalus cadamba) and ganitri (Elaeocarpus angustifolus), in ex-gold mining areas. The application of those significantly improved vegetation diversity on ex-gold mining land including more than 8 types of understory plants and more than 5 plants were from the trees group. This show that reforestation of ex-mining land is feasible if it is carried out with a comprehensive approach. Keyword: Reforestation, Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi, Biodiversity, Compost, Tailing ID: 3486319
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    Project
    Capacity Building for the Management of Small-Pelagic Fisheries in Eritrea - TCP/ERI/3606 2020
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    Eritrea’s agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors account for 17 percent of the country’s annual gross domestic product (GDP), but the fisheries sub-sector only contributes 18 percent of this value, or 3 percent of the national total. Annual per capita fish consumption is low in Eritrea, with an estimated annual per capita fish consumption of 0.4 kilograms, compared to an African-wide average of 9.8 kilograms. In fact, low dietary diversity and access to protein-rich foods among certain segments of the population continues to be a problem, especially among the rural, coastal and more isolated communities, many of whom work in or depend on small-scale fisheries. In addition, fish food consumption remains skewed towards urban populations. From having the second lowest Human Development Index (HDI) out of the 188 countries assessed in 2015 to experiencing high levels of inter-annual variability in market, export and exchange rate activities, Eritrea has an underdeveloped private investment context from which productivity gains and economic diversification could otherwise prosper. The small-pelagic fisheries sector, for instance, has the potential to yield cost-effective investments at scale while actively contributing to poverty reduction and food security and nutrition. With 2 500 kilometers of coastline, including the Dahlak Archipelago where small-pelagic fish varieties are found, Eritrea’s potential in developing its fisheries sector has been halted by a complex, post-independence socioeconomic context. Recent declines in output, employment and income in the small-scale fisheries sector were not due to overfishing or unsustainable natural resource practices. Instead, this is part of broader programmatic and institutional challenges in national sustainable development plans. The Government of Eritrea has therefore published its Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, identifying three priorities for the fisheries sector.  Increase the profitability of artisanal fisheries by strengthening rural cooperatives and linking them to high-value export markets;  Boost export earnings by creating suitable investment climates for investors; and  Strengthen resource management practices to ensure environmental sustainability.

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