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Using questionnaires based on the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries as diagnostic tools in support of fisheries management










Caddy, J.F.; Reynolds, J.E. (ed.); Tegelskär Greig, G. (ed.). Using questionnaires based on the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries as diagnostic tools in support of fisheries management. FAO/FishCode Review. No. 21. Rome, FAO. 2007. 109p. Includes a CD-ROM.


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    Report of the IOTC Performance Review Panel 2009
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    In response to calls from the intertiol community for a review of the performance of Regiol Fisheries Magement Organisations (RFMOs), the Indian Ocean Tu Commission (IOTC) agreed in 2007 to implement a process of Performance Review. The IOTC formed a Review Panel, consisting of an independent legal expert, an independent scientific expert, six IOTC Members and a non-governmental organisations observer, which concluded its report to the Commission in January 2009. The Panel’s review was based on the criteria developed as a result of a joint meeting of tu RFMOs, Kobe, Japan, 2007 and concentrated on the following issues: Adequacy of the Agreement for the Establishment of the Indian Ocean Tu Commission (IOTC Agreement) relative to current principles of fisheries magement, Consistency between scientific advice and conservation and magement measures adopted, ?? Effectiveness of control measures established by the IOTC; and Efficiency and transparency of fincial and administrative magement. KEY FINDINGS OF THE PERFORMANCE REVIEW PANEL I. The legal framework of the IOTC Agreement: The alysis of the legal text of the IOTC Agreement identified a series of gaps and weaknesses which can be summarized as follows: The IOTC Agreement is outdated as it does not take account of modern principles for fisheries magement. The absence of concepts such as the precautiory approach and an ecosystem based approach to fisheries magement are considered to be major weaknesses. The lack of clear delinea tion of the functions of the Commission or flag State and port State obligations provide examples of significant impediments to the effective and efficient functioning of the Commission. The limitation on participation to this RFMO, deriving from IOTC’s legal status as an Article XIV Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) body, conflicts with provisions of United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement (UNFSA) and prevents major fishing players in the Indian Ocean from discharging their obligations to cooperate in the work of the Commission. The IOTC relationship to FAO, most notably in the budgetary context, negatively affects the efficiency of the work of the Commission, with neither Members nor the Secretariat in full control of the budget. This also raises questions relating to the level of transparency in the Commission’s fincial arrangements. ????? The Panel recommends that the IOTC Agreement either be amended or replaced by a new instrument. The decision on whether to amend the Agreement or replace it should be made taking into account the full suite of deficiencies identified in the Review. II. The criteria-based alysis of the performance of the Commission: The alysis based on the Performance Review criteria highlighted numerous weaknesses in the workings of the Commission, of which the most important have been identified as: High levels of uncertainty The quantitative data provided for many of the stocks under the IOTC Agreement is very limited. This is due to lack of compliance, a large proportion of catches being taken by artisal fisheries, for which there is very limited information, and lack of cooperation of non-Members of the IOTC. The data submitted to the Commission is frequently of poor quality. This contributes to high levels of uncertainty concerning the status of many stocks under the IOTC mandate. Poor record of compliance and limited tools for addressing non-compliance Low levels of compliance with IOTC measures and obligations a re commonplace. The Commission to date has taken very limited actions to remedy this situation – there are currently no sanctions/pelties for non-compliance in place. Moreover, the list of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) vessels applies to non-Members only. Special requirements of developing States Many developing States are experiencing serious capacity/infrastructure constraints which impede their ability to comply with their obligations, especially in terms of data collection, repor ting and processing. A number of developing States also lack appropriate scientific expertise and, even where such expertise is available, budgetary constraints limit their participation in Commission meetings, particularly those of the Scientific Committee and working parties. III. In light of these findings, and in addition to the specific recommendations made against each of the criteria, the Review Panel draws the Commission’s attention to the following overarching issues Uncertainty Address ing uncertainty in data and in the stock assessments is one of the most fundamental and urgent actions required to improve the performance of the Commission. This will require a variety of actions of which the most important are: application of scientific assessment methods appropriate to the data/information available, establishing a regiol scientific observer programme to enhance data collection for target and non-target species, and improving data collection and reporting capacity of developi ng States. Also engaging non-Members actively fishing in the area is of critical importance to addressing uncertainty. Equally important are developing a framework to take action in the face of uncertainty in scientific advice and enhancement of functioning and participation in the Scientific Committee and subsidiary bodies. Compliance It is imperative to strengthen the ability of the Compliance Committee to monitor non-compliance and advise the Commission on actions which might be taken in resp onse to non-compliance. Sanction mechanisms for non-compliance and provisions for follow-up on infringements should be developed. The Resolution on the establishment of the IUU list should be amended to allow for the inclusion of vessels flagged to Members. Special requirements of developing States Increased fincial support for capacity building should be provided to developing States. The Commission should enhance already existing funding mechanisms to build developing States’ capacity for data collection, processing and reporting, as well as technical and scientific capabilities. In this context, the possibility of establishing a special fund to facilitate participation in the Commission’s work, including subsidiary groups should be considered. Strengthening the Secretariat’s role/ability to undertake targeted capacity building should be explored.
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    Book (series)
    Report of the FAO Regional Workshop on Port State Measures to Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing. Cape Town, South Africa, 28–31 January 2008. 2008
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    This document contains the report of the FAO Regional Workshop on Port State Measures to Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing, which was held at Cape Town, South Africa, from 28 to 31 January 2008. The objective of the Workshop was to develop national capacity and promote bilateral, sub-regional and/or regional coordination so that countries will be better placed to strengthen and harmonize port State measures and, as a result, implement the relevant International Plan of Act ion to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (IPOA–IUU) tools and the FAO Model Scheme and contribute to the development of a legally-binding instrument on port State measures. The Workshop addressed: background and framework for port State measures; global and regional issues relating to IUU fishing and port State measures, and the 2005 FAO Model Scheme on Port State Measures to Combat IUU Fishing; the 2007 draft Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, De ter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing and the implementation of regional and national port State measures; adoption and implementation of port State measures by regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) and the implementation of measures in the Southern and East Africa subregion; operational and information requirements for effective port State measures; industry perspectives on port State measures and national responses to questionnaires; and key issues for fur ther action and cooperation in strengthening and harmonizing port State measures. Working groups were formed to enhance the participatory nature of the Workshop and as a means of engendering broader and deeper discussion on concepts and issues relating to port State measures. In one exercise they addressed various aspects of port State measures, and recommended and prioritized areas for regional cooperation in implementing port State measures. They also identified further types of support needed to implement port State measures and in another exercise they considered certain thematic aspects relating to the FAO Model Scheme and the draft Agreement on port State measures. This exercise included legal aspects, information requirements, systems and inspection procedures, the results of inspection and training. Funding and support for the Workshop were provided by the FAO Regular Programme, by the Government of Norway through the Trust Fund for Port State Measures (MTF/GLO/206/MUL) and the FishCode Programme (MTF/GLO/125/MUL [Sweden-SIDA] [SWE/05/IUU Port State Measures/IUU fishing]). Funding was also provided by the UK Department for International Development (DFID).
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    Book (series)
    Report of the FAO/APFIC/SEAFDEC Regional Workshop on Port State Measures to Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing. Bangkok, Thailand, 31 March–4 April 2008. 2008
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    This document contains the report of the FAO/APFIC/SEAFDEC [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/Asia Pacific Fisheries Commission/Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center] Regional Workshop on Port State Measures to Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing, that was held in Bangkok, Thailand, from 31 March to 4 April 2008. The objective of the Workshop was to develop national capacity and promote bilateral, subregional and/or regional coordination so t hat countries would be better placed to strengthen and harmonize port State measures and, as a result, implement further the 2001 FAO International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing, the 2005 FAO Model Scheme on Port State Measures to Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing and contribute to the development of a legally-binding instrument on port State measures. The Workshop addressed: the background and framework fo r port State measures; the FAO Model Scheme including national plans of action to combat IUU fishing and IUU fishing activities in Southeast Asia; the FAO Model Scheme and regional approaches and the 2007 draft Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing; key elements of national laws, and the role of the Asia Pacific Fisheries Commission and the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; national coordination and impl ementation of port State measures; industry perspectives on port State measures, and responses to the questionnaire on port State measures. Working groups were formed to enhance the participatory nature of the Workshop and as a means of engendering broader and deeper discussion on concepts and issues relating to port State measures. A fictitious case study exercise was also undertaken to demonstrate how a port State might deal with a realistic IUU fishing problem. The final session o f the Workshop sought to identify key issues to be addressed on a regional basis as follow-up to the Workshop. Funding and support for the Workshop were provided by the FAO Regular Programme, by the Government of Norway through the Trust Fund for Port State Measures (MTF/GLO/206/MUL) and the FishCode Programme (MTF/GLO/125/MUL [Sweden-SIDA] [SWE/05/IUU Port State Measures/IUU fishing]).

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