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Formalization of informal trade in Africa










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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Formalization of informal trade in Africa: trends, experiences and socio-economic impact 2016
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    Africa’s commercial land scape is characterized by a rapidly expanding informal cross border trade (ICBT) in various goods and services. ICBT is an important source of economic growth and livelihood to the continent’s burgeoning population. Yet ICBT receives only little policy attention and is often shunned by various governments due to its demerits such as loss of tax revenue. Leveraging formalization best practices could facilitate realization of the full potential of the businesses involved i n ICBT in Africa.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Inland small-pelagic fisheries utilization options, marketing and opportunities for support 2012
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    The fisheries sector contributes greatly to the economies of the eastern, central and southern regions of Africa (ECSA) in terms of income, employment and export revenue. Until recently, only large-sized fish were exploited for human consumption but small-sized pelagic fish were used for animal feed production. However, in the last decade, concerted efforts have been made in various African countries to reverse the trend. For example in 2005, an FAO led study assessed post-harvest losses in one of the abundant small-sized pelagic fisheries (Rastrineobola argentea), in the East Africa states of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. In 2011, Uganda through the Department of Fisheries Resources (DFR), requested FAO under the Technical Corporation Programme (TCP) to address the question of high post-harvest losses in the fishery and improvement of upstream handling against a backdrop of declining per capita consumption trends. Under this programme, several products were developed to increase Rastrin eobola argentea, locally called Mukene, for human consumption. The SMARTFISH Programme, with funding from the European Union (EU) built on previous efforts by initiation of the present study that has been designed to look at increased utilization options to enhance cross-border trade in small pelagics. As a test case, products from Brycinus nurse (Ragoge) and Neobola bredoi (Musiri) commonly found in Lake Albert of Uganda were developed together with potential Ugandan processors and the economic ally viable products were marketed in neighbouring Kenya and Rwanda to gauge their marketability. Using a structured questionnaire with some input from the Trade Event Specialist, some potential regional traders tasked to evaluate their prospects. Prior to product development, information was gathered on all aspects of the Musiri and Ragoge fishery, including the sanitary status of fishing vessels, time of capture, daily catches, drying surfaces, storage facilities, packaging, wholesale operatio ns as well as markets and transportation. The sand-free sundried products, powdered and fried products were promoted for regional markets. As a complementary study, the nutrient content of products from both fish species was determined for purposes of backstopping the three up-graded processors who were at different levels of development. The regional market opportunities surveyed indicated that there was an insatiable demand for all products made from small-sized pelagics ranging from sun-dried to powdered. The large quantities demanded by the regional markets could not be met by processors using traditional processing methods and operating at a small-scale. It was also evident that product quality was a determinant factor in product pricing. The cost of sand-free products was one and a half times more than adulterated products which underscore the influence of consumers in the market place. There were other external drivers that are likely to enhance regional trade of the identified value-added products from Uganda. They included population increases, regional geo-economic and political blocks, carbohydrate-based diets, nutritional properties of fish and civil strife or wars. During the implementation of the present study, there were two major challenges namely; seasonality of the two species under scrutiny and the competence of local processors to be up-graded to standards required by the regional as well as international markets. Both factors slowed down the implementatio n process because unplanned exposure visits and training had to be conducted to improve the competence of potential processors under the up-grading SMARTFISH scheme. In conclusion, there was an insatiable demand in the region for all products made from small-sized pelagic fishes from Uganda and trade in such products can be enhanced in the region with concerted effort from all key actors along the value-chain, improved upstream handling, broadened utilization base, consumption campaigns and enfo rcement of quality and safety standards. However, implementation of some intervention measures cited would require harmonized policies across national borders, substantial investment in the sector, sensitization of key actors with regard to market requirements and goodwill among policy enforcers at border crossings.
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    Book (series)
    Regional review on status and trends in aquaculture development in sub-Saharan Africa – 2020 2022
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    This review provides an overview of the status, trends, challenges and projections for aquaculture in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and evaluates the major trends during previous five years. While the sector still faces various internal and external challenges, the inherent natural potential of the region and rapidly increasing demand for fish has resulted in increased prioritization of aquaculture in almost all SSA countries and the African Union and subsidiary bodies have given special attention to the sector development. In order to realize its full potential, the SSA region needs to address a combination of overarching factors limiting aquaculture development so far, such as ineffective development approaches, weak governance frameworks, underdeveloped value chains and low availability as well as the high cost of key production inputs. Strengthened value chains for tilapia and catfish, promotion of new species, improved biosecurity, continued development of certification and associated harmonized best practices, improved information systems and innovations to address climate-change related impacts are some of the matters to be addressed. Financial institutions and private sector (national and international) have equally started investing, even though in the global picture such interventions may seem negligible, which makes the continent to call for more and higher levels technical and financial assistance from international partners. Upscale the status of production and productivity via healthy investments would help the sector to generate a variety of benefits including food security, livelihoods, employment, domestic and intra-regional markets, foreign currency income and other socio-economic benefits.

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