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Malaysia National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Shark (Plan 2)








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    IPOA - International Plan of Action for reducing incidental catch of seabirds in longline fisheries. International Plan of Action for the conservation and management of sharks. International Plan of Action for the management of fishing capacity. 1999
    The IPOA-SEABIRDS is a voluntary instrument that applies to all States whose fishermen engage in longline fisheries. The text sets out a set of activities which implementing States are expected to carry out, including an assessment of whether a problem exists with respect to the incidental catch of seabirds in its longline fishery, adopting a National Plan of Action for reducing the incidental catch of seabirds in longline fisheries (NPOA-SEABIRDS) as well as procedures for national reviews and reporting requirements. The calendar years by when these actions preferably should have been taken, are indicated . The IPOA-SEABIRDS also provides a summary description of appropriate mitigation measures which States that determine that they have a problem with the incidental catch of seabirds in their longline fisheries, should consider for inclusion in the NPOA-SEABIRDS. The mitigation measures described are either already used or in an early stage of development. References to appropriate literature are provided. The IPOA-SHARKS is a voluntary instrument that applies to all States whose fishermen engage in shark fisheries. The text sets out a set of activities which implementing States are expected to carry out, including an assessment of whether a problem exists with respect to sharks, adopting a National Plan of Action for the conservation and management of sharks (NPOA-SHARKS), as well as procedures for national reviews and reporting requirements. The calendar years by whe n these actions preferably should have been taken, are indicated. The IPOA-CAPACITY is a voluntary instrument that applies to all States whose fishermen engage in capture fisheries. The first part of the text describes the nature and scope of the International Plan of Action, the underlining principles and defines the objective of the IPOA. The remainder of the text describes urgent actions and identifies mechanisms to promote implementation. The urgent actions include assessment and monitori ng of fishing capacity and the preparation and implementation of national plans. The text on mechanisms to promote implementation describes scientific and technical co-operation, national and international reporting, and, the role of FAO. The calendar years by when recommended actions should be completed, have been identified.
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    NPOA - National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks in the Maldives 2015
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    Sharks are a group of about 1,100 species of mostly marine fishes (Compagno, 2001). Estimates on the global annual harvest of sharks vary considerably from 700,000 to 1.5 million tonnes and the only real consensus is that data on the fishery are chronically lacking (Frisk, et al., 2001; Stevens, et al., 2000). Sharks in general, are extremely vulnerable to over-fishing due to their slow growth, late maturity, long reproductive cycles and low reproductive output (Musick , et al., 2000). Increased worldwide exploitation of shark species with scientific evidence proving declining shark populations and few countries managing their shark fisheries, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations developed a set of guidelines to ensure the management and conservation of sharks. These guidelines became the International Plan of Action on Sharks (IPOA-Sharks). IPOA-Sharks was endorsed by the FAO Committee on Fisheries (COFI) in 1999. IPOA-Sharks is voluntary and all FAO membe r countries involved in directed and non-directed shark fisheries are encouraged to develop a National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (NPOA-Sharks).
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    Book (series)
    Fisheries management. 1. Conservation and management of sharks 2000
    These Guidelines have been produced to support implementation of the International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (IPOA-Sharks). The Guidelines are addressed to decision-makers and policy-makers associated with conserving shark and other chondrichthyan species and with managing the harvest of these resources, but they should be of interest to fishing industries and other parties. The IPOA-Sharks is consistent with the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, agreements from the 1995 United Nations Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, and any applicable rules of international law. It encompasses all shark and other chondrichthyan fisheries, both target and non-target fisheries, whether they be industrial, artisanal or traditional fisheries or fishing programmes designed to reduce risk of shark attack on humans. The IPOA-Sharks is not a full strategic plan for the world, rather it prescribes a process whereby indiv idual States, States participating in sub-regional arrangements through bilateral and multilateral agreements to manage shared transboundary shark stocks, and relevant regional fisheries management organizations (RFMO), identify national, subregional and regional issues and then develop national and regional Shark Plans to address the issues. The guiding principles of the IPOA-Sharks and the Guidelines are that States contributing to fishing mortality of a species or stock should participate i n its conservation and management, and that, as a traditional and important source of food, employment and income, shark resources be used sustainably. The precautionary approach to conservation and management is embraced when the status of a resource is uncertain, such as when fishery data are insufficient or unreliable.

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