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Influence of snow cover change and temperature anomalies on the transformation of boreal forests and fires in north Asia

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    A study on the estimation of threshold of crown fire transition with the slope conditions
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    As simultaneous and massive forest fires are rapidly increasing along with climate change such as winter abnormally high temperatures, the need for systematic research and development of management technology to reduce fire damage from large-scale forest fires is emerging. Because the main mechanism of large fire is crown fire and spot fire in the coniferous forests vulnerable to forest fires, the understanding of fire behavior must take precedence in order to fire damage reduction. However, fire behavior research has mostly been developed based on empirical knowledge due to limitations in the scale of experimental equipment, which makes research data somewhat less accurate to show the characteristics of fire behavior at actual sites. In this work, we tried to physically observe the characteristics of crown fire behavior accompanying large forest fires through indoor combustion experiments with minimal exposure to environmental variables. Using large wind tunnel equipment, crown fire transition phenomenon from the surface fire was simulated, and the slope conditions and crown base height(CBH) thresholds of crown fire transition under Korean pine forest conditions were presented through items such as spread rate, flame characteristics, mass loss rate, and ignition. According to the results of this study, the rate of fire spread increased as the slope angle increased, the rate of firespread of slope angle 30° was 14 times faster than slope angle 0°. Measured fire intensity ranged from 246.73 kW/m, ~ 2,602.96 kW/m, the fire intensity increased as the slope angle increases. The flame height and flame tilt decreased as the slope angle increased, the length of flame increased as the slope angle increased. The measured combustion rate decreased as the slope angle increased. The moisture content of canopy fuel measured higher as the crown base height increases under the same slope conditions, so the risk of forest fire ignition is determined to below. The results of this study can be used as basic data to fire behavior with the slope conditions. Keywords: crown fire transition, fire behavior, surface fire, crown base height, fuel moisture content ID: 3623685
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    Land use and land cover changes and the link to land degradation, Ethiopia
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Accurate information on land use and land cover change (LULCC) is critical for understanding the causes of change and for developing effective policies and strategies to slow and reverse land degradation. In Ethiopia, the speed and scale of LULCC has been accelerated in the last 3–4 decades of the 21st century. The objectives of this study were to assess: (i) the extent of LULCC and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the link to land degradation; (ii) the causes of LULCC and implication for climate change adaptation. Satellite images analysis was used to detect the change in area and vegetation index, and farmers’ perception to see the magnitude of LULCC dynamics and causes of deforestation. Correlations were made between vegetation index with dry season rainfall and temperature. The analysis of confusion matrix of LULC classification showed 87% accuracy with Kappa coefficient of 0.84. In the period 1986–2016, agriculture and settlement areas have increased by 250% and 618%, respectively. On the other hand, forests and woodlands have decreased by 72% and 84%, respectively. These were also validated with the farmers’ quantification results with similar trends. Different causes have played roles in the dynamics of LULCC. The results showed that vegetation dynamics vary both spatially and temporally against precipitation and temperature. This study informs the need to focus on halting deforestation and development of alternative energy sources. It further helps to design future land management directions, landscape based adaptation and rehabilitation strategies to be considered by policy makers. Keywords: Adaptive and integrated management, Agriculture, Biodiversity, Climate change,landscape management ID: 3599543
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    Assessment of aboveground carbon in a humid forest of Madagascar for better forest management at a local scale
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Carbon quantification in tropical forests is vital for the successful implementation of climate mitigation activities including Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) and for a better action plan for ecosystem management. Despite several studies in the aboveground carbon of Madagascar forests, studies at the local level are rare. This study, therefore, aims to assess the aboveground biomass (AGB) at the local level in Ankeniheny-Zahamena Forest Corridor (CAZ). Here, local allometric equations were developed to estimate AGB based from the destructive harvest of 54 trees. These equations are then applied to the 1800 trees inventoried in 28 study sites spread over four zones. Thereafter, the influence of climatic (temperature and precipitation) and topographical factors (altitude and slope) on the variability of AGB was analyzed. Hence, the sites were classified according to these two factors via hierachical ascending classification (HAC). Then, the effect of the two factors on the AGB was appreciated by analysis of the variances (ANOVA). The present study estimated aboveground carbon stock varying from 119, 55 ± 24, 11 Mg. ha - 1 to 176, 57 ± 51,91Mg. ha1 considering local equation EqCAZ3. The variability between AGB per zone were observed. The classification showed three bioclimatic classes. Then, climatic and topographic factors have significant effects at p-value 0, 05 on AGB. Furthermore, a significant contribution of biomass in DBH class ≥10cm (p-value <0,001) suggested the importance of growing and mature trees in carbon storage. Thus, the interest of this study was linked in improving and updating the quantification of the AGB in CAZ. These data are crucial to support the activities related to REDD + and to fight against degradation and deforestation. Priority of conservation and protection mainly in the area of Anjahamana by its favorable bioclimatic conditions was recommended. Keywords: aboveground biomass, allometric equation, degradation and deforestation, tropical rainforest, Madagascar ID: 3486668

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