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Fisheries and aquaculture in Tajikistan: review and policy framework










Khaitov, A.H., Gafurov, A., van Anrooy, R., Hasan, M.R., Bueno, P.B. and Yerli, S.V. 2013. Fisheries and aquaculture in Tajikistan: review and policy framework. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular. No. 1030/3. Ankara, FAO. 90 pp.


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    Annual fish production in the Kyrgyz Republic (or Kyrgyzstan) has fallen significantly since independence in 1991. In 1991, fish production (inland and aquaculture) was estimated at more than 1 361 tonnes. By 2006, it had decreased to 71 tonnes. In the same period, more than 90 percent of state fish farms were privatized as part of the economic changes that followed the breakup of the former Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics. In February 2007, the Government of Kyrgyzstan, throug h the Ministry of Agriculture, Water Resources and Processing Industry (MAWRPI), requested FAO to provide technical assistance for the sustainable development and management of the fishery sector in the country. FAO, through its European Community (EC)/FAO facility for consultancy services, approved Project GCP/GLO/162/EC – Kyrgyzstan – “Development of inland fisheries and aquaculture in the Kyrgyz Republic to reduce rural food insecurity”. This FAO Fisheries Circular has two main ai ms. First, it is intended to inform those interested in fisheries and aquaculture in Kyrgyzstan about the current situation with regard to fishery resources and their utilization in the country. Second, it attempts to provide an example of a consultative and participatory policy framework development process, which might be of use also for other countries in transition in the Central Asian region. The documents presented here are considered as final versions and cleared as such by the Department of Fisheries (DOF) of the MAWRPI. The documents are also available in Russian language from the DOF in Bishkek. The Review of capture Fisheries and aquaculture in the Kyrgyz Republic is presented in Part I of this Fisheries Circular. Part II contains the final version of the Strategy for fisheries and aquaculture sector development and management in the Kyrgyz Republic (2008–2012).
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    The Fisheries sector is significant contribution to the economy of Vietnam, the export value in 2008 was US$ 4.509 billion. The fisheries and aquaculture sectors have expanded rapidly over the past decade, with aquaculture production rising from 1,202,500 to 2,430,944 tonnes over the period from 2004 to 2008, with more than 1.3 million MT tons of Pangasius and 450,000 MT of brackish and freshwater shrimp and prawn. Fisheries production in 2008 was about 2,134 thousand tons, of which marine captu re contributed 1,937 thousand tons. The natural resources, particularly inshore fisheries are considered to be over-exploited with many high valued fish resources having declined to low levels. The number of vessels has increased continuously without control since 1980. This leads to increased competition in inshore areas. In order to earn a living, fishermen use many destructive fishing gears and bad practices including smaller mesh sizes than required, other destructive fishing methods like el ectricity, poisons, dynamite. As a result, fish of all sizes are captured, including young and fingerling fish. In recent years, the Government of Vietnam has enacted many policies to support the aim of sustainable development, and poverty reduction while protecting natural resources. To reduce fishing pressure in coastal areas, many programs have been promoted by the Government including offshore fisheries, aquaculture development, services on sea development and infrastructure development. The offshore fishing vessels under Government’s offshore fishing program are supported by a credit scheme for boat construction, upgrading of fishing vessels and offshore fishing services. Considered one of the major alternative activities to diversify income for coastal communities, the aquaculture sector has received increasingly strong support under Government of Vietnam policy over the past 20 years. The main focus has been on the establishment of infrastructure for aquaculture development, and to convert saline paddy fields, low lying land, land used for salt production, flooded land and other unproductive land to aquaculture. In addition Government policy has supported fishers and farmers in isolated areas through credit schemes. Micro-finance is conducted through the Vietnam Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (VBARD), the Commercial Investment Bank (CIB) and the Bank for Social Policy (BSP). BSP mainly provides subsidized loans to poor households, while VBARD and CIB make l arge loans to enterprises. These policies have supported fishermen investing in pond construction, buying of equipment, seed, feeds and other items. To protect natural resources and bio-diversity the following activities have been implemented: Fishing licensing, control of productivity in specific marine areas, protection of rare and precious species that are in danger of extinction, restocking to enhance breeding population size and density, protection of aquatic habitats, and rehabilitation an d protection of fisheries resources etc. Co-management is considered as a potential tool for sustainable utilization of fisheries resources in Vietnam, particularly for small-scale fisheries. In Vietnam, co-management has recently been included in many policy instruments and pilots are in operation in Vietnam with varying degrees of success. Vietnam has set up and is continuously improving the law, regulations and standards on conditions for food safety, environment and animal health protection , which meets most of the provisions, articles for technical barriers to trade (TBT) and Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) measures on food quality and safety of fish and fishery products, from aquaculture to processing and trading of fish and fishery products. The assurance of food safety needs requires the use of a systematic approach from raw material production, handling, processing, preservation and distribution of fish and fishery product to the customers. Over last 20 years, the Vietnam g overnment has enacted many policies to improve safety and reduce vulnerability for fishing communities such as policies on improving safety for fishermen and fishing boats at sea, support of radio communication devices for owner of fishing boats, support to fishermen to overcome natural risks at sea, support to protecting and reduce the affects of natural calamities at sea, insurance support for vessels and fishers, establish anchorages and storm shelters, and establishment of information networ ks on sea and islands, etc.
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    The present study is an update of an earlier assessment of warm-water fish farming potential in Africa, by Kapetsky (1994). The objective of this study was to assess locations and areal expanses that have potential for warm-water and temperate-water fish farming in continental Africa. The study was based on previous estimates for Africa by the above author, and on estimates of potential for warm-water and temperate-water fish farming in Latin America by Kapetsky and Nath (1997). However, a nu mber of refinements have been made. The most important refinement was that new data allowed a sevenfold increase in resolution over that used in the previous Africa study, and a twofold increase over that of Latin America (i.e. to 3 arc minutes, equivalent to 5 km x 5 km grids at the equator), making the present results more usable in order to assess fish farming potential at the national level. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to evaluate each grid cell on the basis of severa l land-quality factors important for fish-farm development and operation regardless of the fish species used. Protected areas, large inland water bodies and major cities were identified as constraint areas, and were excluded from any fish farming development altogether. Small-scale fish farming potential was assessed on the basis of four factors: water requirement from ponds due to evaporation and seepage, soil and terrain suitability for pond construction based on a variety of soil attributes a nd slopes, availability of livestock wastes and agricultural by-products as feed inputs based on manure and crop potential, and farm-gate sales as a function of population density. For commercial farming, an urban market potential criterion was added based on population size of urban centres and travel time proximity. Both small-scale and commercial models were developed by weighting the above factors using a multi-criteria decision-making procedure. A bioenergetics model was incorporated int o the GIS to predict, for the first time, fish yields across Africa. A gridded water temperature data set was used as input to a bioenergetics model to predict number of crops per year for the following three species: Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Similar analytical approaches to those by Kapetsky and Nath (1997) were followed in the yield estimation. However, different specifications were used for small-scale and co mmercial farming scenarios in order to reflect the types of culture practices found in Africa. Moreover, the fish growth simulation model, documented in Kapetsky and Nath (1997), was refined to enable consideration of feed quality and high fish biomass in ponds. The small-scale and commercial models derived from the land-quality evaluation were combined with the yield potential of each grid cell for each of the three fish species to show the coincidence of each land-quality suitability class with a range of yield potentials. Finally, the land quality-fish yield potential combinations were put together to show where the fish farming potential coincided for the three fish species. The results are generally positive. Estimates of the quality of land show that about 23% of continental Africa scored very suitable for both small-scale and commercial fish farming. For the three fish species, 50-76% of Africa's land has the highest yield range potential, and the spatial distribution of th is yield is quite similar among the species and farming systems. However, the spatial distribution of carp culture potential was greater than for Nile tilapia and African catfish. Combining the two farming system models with the favourable yields of the three fish species suggest that over 15% of the continent has land areas with high suitability for pond aquaculture.

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