The state of the world's forests 2022

Figures, tables and boxes


1 Estimated direct and total economic contribution of the world’s forest sector to gross domestic product, by subsector, 2015

2 Total direct formal and informal employment in the forest sector, by region and subsector, 2011–2013 and 2017–2019

3 Programmes combining poverty alleviation and ecological restoration in China, 2012–2019

4 Annual technical and cost-effective mitigation potential of the main forest climate-change mitigation options globally, 2020–2050

5 Cost data retrieved from the literature on forest restoration in tropical and subtropical countries (23 studies)

6 Voluntary carbon market size by project category, 2019–31 August 2021


1 The global distribution of forests, by climatic domain, 2020

2 Global area of other land with tree cover, 1990–2020

3 Density of people living near trees on agricultural land, 2019

4 Forest ecosystem services wealth per capita, 1995–2018

5 Percent change in forest ecosystem services and timber wealth per capita, by region, 1995–2018

6 The relationship between the System of National Accounts and the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting – Ecosystem Accounting in the valuing of forest ecosystem services

7 Trends in the production of two main types of paper product, 1961–2020

8 “Hotspots” map showing the predicted distribution of zoonotic disease emergence risk from wildlife

9 The relative proportions of different restoration intervention types in Brazil, El Salvador, Mexico (Quintana Roo state), Rwanda and the United States of America, as of 2018

10 Internal rates of return (a) and benefit–cost ratio (b) for restoration in nine major biomes

11 Projected global material extraction, 2015–2060, assuming a continuation of current trends

12 Material balance in the sawmilling process for non-coniferous sawnwood

13 Diversity of forest finance sources

14 Allocations of climate-related development finance to the agriculture, forestry and other land-use sectors

15 Climate finance for forestry

16 Public expenditure in forestry in 13 sub-Saharan African countries, and forestry official development assistance

17 Greenness of Stimulus Index, as of 30 June 2021, 30 countries

18 Annual increase in fixed assets for medium-sized and large enterprises in Indonesian forest subsectors

19 Additional investment required in forest pathways under an “immediate action” scenario

20 Top ten investment instruments with high feasibility in emerging markets, scored according to potential

21 The green bonds market, 2014–2021

22 Proportion of climate finance benefiting small-scale agriculture

23 Stage of development of benefit-sharing mechanisms under REDD+ in the 54 countries supported by UN-REDD, the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility and other initiatives


1 Defining and measuring deforestation

2 The economic importance of nature-based tourism

3 The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on wood production and trade

4 A socio-economic survey in Liberia finds considerable forest-related benefits for people living near forests

5 The importance of trees outside forests in Bangladesh

6 One Health

7 The Global Environment Facility’s Food Systems, Land Use and Restoration Program

8 The 2021 UN Food Systems Summit, and the Forest, Agriculture and Commodity Trade Dialogues

9 Public–private collaboration on zero-deforestation value chains

10 Using assisted natural regeneration to restore a watershed in the Philippines

11 Spatial planning optimization for the cost-effectiveness of forest and landscape restoration

12 An agroforestry model in the Brazilian Amazon

13 Gabon promotes cross-laminated timber buildings

14 Wood encouragement policies

15 Use of wood fibre in the manufacture of medical products

16 The potential role of biomass in achieving net-zero emissions by 2050

17 Woodfuel and employment in Nigeria

18 Sustainable forestry and production of wood products – relevant to the sustainable-use pathway

19 Examples of blended-finance efforts to raise money for sustainable forestry

20 Green bonds – funding forest pathways

21 Building verification systems for legal and sustainable wood products – experiences in forest law enforcement, governance and trade

22 Examples of initiatives on issues related to agricultural commodities and forests

23 Integrating environmental criteria into financial decisions

24 The crucial role of forests acknowledged at the 2021 UN Conference on Climate Change

25 Funds for sequestering carbon through forestry

26 Results-based payments in the Green Climate Fund

27 Tree collateral in Asia – tapping into forest smallholder wealth

28 Trees for Global Benefit – a scheme for building farmer assets based on their ecosystem services

29 Re-greening the Niger by advancing tree rights for farmers

30 Enabling policies for smallholder forestry in China and Viet Nam

31 Ghana Federation of Forest and Farm Producers

32 Investing in smallholder forestry in Guatemala – a pathway for rural green economy and green recovery

33 China’s Grain for Green Programme

34 The International Model Forest Network and local forest-based development

35 Farmer field schools in forestry

36 Revitalizing traditional knowledge for managing wildfires in Australia

37 Revitalizing forest education

38 A locally developed due-diligence system in Viet Nam

39 A women’s association produces sustainable charcoal in Côte d’Ivoire

40 An app for preparing strategic restoration plans

41 Using drones for community forest monitoring in Panama

42 Women’s engagement in land rights formalization in Colombia

43 Youth organizations engaging in REDD+ policy dialogues

44 A women-led community-based organization in Kenya providing access to finance

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