Agroforestry. A land-use system that involves the use of perennial woody species with agricultural crops or livestock in a given space over a given period. The three main types of agroforestry system are: (1) agrosilvicultural (trees combined with crops); (2) silvopastoral (trees combined with animals); and (3) agrosilvopastoral (trees, animals and crops).

Bioeconomy. The production, utilization, conservation and regeneration of biological resources, including related knowledge, science, technology and innovation, to provide sustainable solutions (information, products, processes and services) within and across all economic sectors and enable a transformation to a sustainable economy.

Cascading use. The efficient utilization of resources by using residues and recycled materials to extend total biomass availability within a given system.563 One of the aims of the cascading use of woody biomass is the maximization of value added by optimizing wood processing and extending total biomass availability, thereby also creating more jobs. The term can refer to a sequential use of woody biomass in which energy use is only considered after single or multiple material uses; that is, it excludes the direct energy use of harvested wood without prior material use (in wood products such as sawnwood, veneer and paper).

Circular economy. Refers to economic systems based on business models that reuse, recycle and recover (also known as the three Rs of sustainability or the 3R approach) materials in production, distribution and consumption processes for achieving sustainable development.564 The concept can also be characterized as an approach that can reduce resource consumption by slowing, closing or narrowing natural resource loops.565 The cascading use of woody biomass is one of the strategies for such economic models.

Deforestation. The conversion of forest to other land use independently of whether human-induced or not.566

Forest. Land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use.2

Forest degradation. The long-term reduction of the overall supply of benefits from forests, which includes wood, biodiversity and other products and services. In the Global Forest Resources Assessment, countries are requested to indicate the definition of forest degradation they use in assessing the extent and severity of forest degradation.567

Forest and landscape restoration. A planned process that aims to regain ecological integrity and enhance human well-being in deforested or degraded landscapes. It does not seek to recreate past ecosystems given the uncertainty concerning the past, the significantly altered conditions of the present as well as anticipated but uncertain future changes. However, it does seek to restore a forested ecosystem that is self-sustaining and that provides benefits both to people and to biodiversity. For this reason, the landscape scale is particularly important because it provides the opportunity to balance ecological, social and economic priorities.568

Forest ecosystem services. The benefits people obtain from ecosystems. These include provisioning services such as food, water, timber and fibre; regulating services that affect climate, floods, disease, wastes and water quality; cultural services that provide recreational, aesthetic and spiritual benefits; and supporting services such as soil formation, photosynthesis and nutrient cycling.569 Forest ecosystem services are the ecosystem services derived from forests – they include the production of ecosystem goods; climate and water regulation; soil formation and conservation; the generation and maintenance of biodiversity; pollination; pest control; seed dispersal; cultural values; and aesthetic beauty.570

Forest expansion. Expansion of forest on land that, until then, was under a different land use, implying a transformation of land use from non-forest to forest.2

Forest pathway. A development approach involving forests, of which the following three are identified in SOFO 2022: (1) halting deforestation and forest degradation as a crucial element for reversing the drivers of climate change, biodiversity loss, land degradation, desertification and the emergence of zoonotic diseases (“halting deforestation and maintaining forests”, also “halting deforestation”); (2) restoring degraded forests and landscapes and putting more trees into agricultural settings as cost-effective means for improving natural assets and generating economic, social and environmental benefits (“restoring degraded lands and expanding agroforestry”, also “restoration”); and (3) increasing sustainable forest use and building green value chains to help meet future demand for materials and ecosystem services and support greener and circular economies, particularly at the local level (“sustainably using forests and building green value chains”, also “sustainable use”).

Green. Used in this report (e.g. green value chains, green jobs, green economy) to refer to approaches involving the pursuit of knowledge, technology, innovation and practices with the aim of creating more environmentally friendly and ecologically responsible production systems, producing more with less, minimizing impacts on the environment and sustaining natural resources for current and future generations.

Green jobs. Decent jobs that contribute to conserving or restoring the environment, be they in traditional sectors such as manufacturing and construction or in new, emerging green sectors such as renewable energy and energy efficiency.571

Green recovery. The process of revitalizing economies and reversing disruptions to trade and transport caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and associated containment measures by prioritizing investments that reduce the risks presented by climate change, biodiversity loss and other environmental challenges and promote sustainable development. A green recovery would enable countries to build back better, with investments driving economic growth, short-term job creation and significant longer-term economic, social and environmental benefits.

Non-timber forest products. All biological materials other than timber which are extracted from forests for human use.572 Note that this definition differs from that used in one paper cited in this report, which is as follows: Wild native or non-native biological organisms and materials, other than high-value timber, collected from landscapes and habitats.573

Non-wood forest products. Goods of biological origin other than wood, derived from forests, other wooded land and trees outside forests.574

Other land with tree cover. Land not classified as forest but which has a tree-canopy cover of at least 10 percent and an area of more than 0.5 ha (e.g. orchards).2

Other wooded land. Land not classified as “forest”, spanning more than 0.5 hectares; with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of 5–10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ; or with a combined cover of shrubs, bushes and trees above 10 percent. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use.

Payment for ecosystem services. A payment made by the beneficiaries or users of an ecosystem service to the providers of that service. In practice, this may take the form of a series of payments in return for receiving a flow of benefits or ecosystem services.

Substitution factor. Typically used to express the emissions that would be avoided if a wood-based product is used instead of a product made from another material providing the same function. Thus, a substitution factor of 1 would mean a reduction of 1 kg of carbon emissions for every 1 kg of wood used in place of non-wood materials. Substitution gains may be counterbalanced by a reduction in forest carbon stock and other leakage effects between regions and need to be further assessed and considered.

Trees outside forests. Trees growing in land uses not categorized as forest (e.g. other wooded land and other land with tree cover).2

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