1 Comparing existing studies on the global hidden costs of agrifood systems

2 A traffic-light representation of the three intensity indicators to signal potential priorities for a targeted assessment

A2.1 Environmental, social and health hidden costs (in millions), 2020

A2.2 Intensity indicators of environmental, social and health hidden costs of agrifood systems, 2020


1 How assessments of capital flows can inform levers for agrifood systems transformation

2 Ease of quantification for selected capital flows along a spectrum

3 Two-phase agrifood systems assessment process

4 Process of informed agrifood systems transformation

5 Scope of the analysis: agrifood systems stages and pathways through which hidden costs manifest

6 Quantified hidden costs of agrifood systems by cost category (left) and subcategory (right), 2020

7 Total quantified hidden costs of agrifood systems by income group

8 Share of quantified hidden costs of agrifood systems to GDP by income group (hidden costs per capita on the right-hand side)

9 Quantified hidden costs of agrifood systems by subcategory for selected countries by income level (share of hidden costs to GDP [2020 PPP dollars] on the right-hand side)

10 Spatial distribution of indicators of hidden costs in global agrifood systems, 2020

11 A four-step process to initiate and scale up targeted agrifood systems assessments

12 Five commonly used functional units, their scope and relevance

13 The role of scenarios in informing policymaking

14 Examples of how true cost accounting can inform decision-making in different departments of an agrifood company

15 Levers for agrifood systems transformation


1 Public support for food and agriculture is still highly distortive

2 Market failures and agrifood systems: definitions and examples

3 True cost accounting builds upon the work of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

4 The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity (TEEB): TEEBAgriFood in a nutshell

5 Halting forest degradation is crucial to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, but it is difficult to quantify

6 What is behind the numbers in this report?

7 Uncertainty in the global estimates of the hidden costs of agrifood systems

8 Quantified hidden costs of agrifood systems over time – an overview of recent trends

9 The cost of ignoring trade-offs: the case of insecticide use in the Horn of Africa

10 Guiding principles of the TEEBAgriFood Evaluation Framework

11 TEEBAgriFood evaluation of rice production in northeastern Thailand

12 Scenario analysis to uncover the health and environmental hidden costs of different diets

13 Using scenario analysis in a real policy context: an example from Indonesia

14 Incentivizing climate-smart coffee production in Colombia

15 True cost accounting initiatives in the private sector

16 How businesses make use of true cost accounting – evidence from three businesses

17 Mobilizing private capital to address threats to cocoa production in Ghana

18 Leveraging finance for sustainable production and biodiversity conservation in Chiapas, Mexico

19 Palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia – the role of voluntary sustainability standards

20 How conservation agreements are curbing deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon while improving farmers’ livelihoods

21 Impact of brucellosis on livestock, health and the environment – scenario analysis in the Intergovernmental Authority on Development region

22 Greenhouse gas emissions from egg and milk production – evidence from two life cycle assessments

23 Scaling public financing towards sustainable natural resources management – the case of Uganda

back to top