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Microbial safety of lipid-based ready-to-use foods for management of moderate acute malnutrition and severe acute malnutrition – Second report













​FAO and WHO. 2021. Microbial safety of lipid-based ready-to-use foods for management of moderate acute malnutrition and severe acute malnutrition – Second report. Microbiological Risk Assessment Series No. 29. Rome. 




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    Microbiological safety of lipid-based ready-to-use foods for management of moderate acute malnutrition and severe acute malnutrition 2016
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    Consistent with the need to provide safe food for young children, particularly during the complementary feeding period between 6 and 24 months and the period of rapid development to age 59 months, FAO and WHO convened a technical meeting in FAO headquarters, Rome, Italy, from 11 to 14 December 2012 that addressed the microbial safety of ready-to-use foods (RUF) for the management of acute malnutrition. The meeting was held at the request of the WFP and UNICEF to help them formulate a science-ba sed response to the finding of Cronobacter spp. in lipid-based RUF and to provide guidance on appropriate microbiological specifications to include among other purchase requirements to enhance the safety of lipid-based RUF. This report provides an overview of the assessment of the risk posed by Cronobacter spp in this product and provides guidance to agencies distributing the product as well of the producers on how to manage this problem and minimise the risk to the vulnerable consuming popula tion.
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    Guidelines for ready-to-use therapeutic foods 2023
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    This text provides guidance on technical and nutritional aspects of the production of ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) including nutritional composition, raw materials and ingredients, good manufacturing practices, microbiological and chemical contaminant criteria, methods of analysis and sampling, and provisions for packaging and labelling. The provisions of these guidelines apply to RUTF for children aged from 6 to 59 months with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) who need efficacious and timely intervention including safe, palatable foods with a high-energy content and adequate amounts of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients within an appropriately designed programme that promotes continuation of breastfeeding, appropriate transition to nutritious family food and psycho-social support for recovery. The term "Codex Alimentarius" is Latin and means "food code”. Codex standards are international food texts, i.e. standards, codes of practice, codes of hygienic practice, guidelines and other recommendations, established to protect the health of the consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. The collection of food standards and related texts adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission is known as the Codex Alimentarius.
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    Risk assessment of 3-MCPD and fatty acid esters in nutrient supplements and therapeutic food
    2024
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    Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) are used to prevent and treat malnutrition in children. They are often produced in regions experiencing food insecurity and include edible oils obtained from oleaginous seeds or fruits that must be refined to remove undesirable substances and ensure adequate shelf-life for the product. However, the formation of the heat-induced contaminants 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) fatty acid esters and glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) may occur during the refining process of edible oils. 3-MCPD and its fatty acid esters are present in many other foodstuffs and most of the total lifetime exposure is attributed to foods other than LNS/RUTF. While the only Codex standard developed for 3-MCPD is for liquid condiments containing acid hydrolyzed vegetable proteins, no Codex standards are available for GEs. This publication provides an overview of risk assessments for 3-MCPD and GEs previously performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and other authorities, based on chronic exposure. The use of LNS/RUTF is intended to be of finite duration and confined to a specific life stage. The aim of this report was to provide an assessment to characterize the risk of less-than-lifetime exposure to 3-MCPD (including 3-MCPD fatty acid esters) and GEs via LNS/RUTF in the context of limited food availability. The thresholds identified herein for concentrations of 3-MCPD and glycidol equivalents in LNS/RUTF products are considered to represent a level of exposure that is of low concern for human health.

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