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The status of water use efficiency and productivity with a focus on paddy rice in Sri Lanka









Salman, M., Suzuki, H., Ahmad, W., Giusti, S., Ali, A., Rathnayake, W.M.U.K., Sirisena, D.N., Senanayake, D.M.J.B., Herath, W.M.T.M., Meegasthenna, J., Ponnampalam, Y., Bandulasena, W.M., De Silva, A., Nandharathne, A.B.D.T., Sooriyaarachchi, A.T., Bandara, D. & Pathmarajah, S. 2023. The status of water use efficiency and productivity with a focus on paddy rice in Sri Lanka. Rome, FAO.




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    Book (stand-alone)
    Efficient agricultural water use and management in paddy fields in Sri Lanka
    National outlook
    2022
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    An increasing number of regions in the world are frequently facing water shortage, and water demand is likely to grow in the next 20–30 years due to intensified agriculture, population growth, urbanization and climate change. Future demand of water by all sectors will, thus, require as much as 25 to 40 percent of water to be re-allocated from lower to higher productivity and employment–oriented activities, particularly in water stressed regions. As such, these reallocations are likely to come from agriculture due to its high share of water use. In view of the projected rise in water demand in agriculture and non-agricultural sectors, appropriate actions that increase water use efficiency especially in irrigation are crucial to sustainably enhance agricultural production and productivity. In Sri Lanka, one-third of the rural population depends on agriculture. Rice is the national staple food which is cultivated twice a year on nearly one million hectares of land under a range of physical and environmental conditions. Currently, about 80 percent of paddy production comes from irrigated agriculture, while 20 percent is by rainfed area. Paddy cultivation is especially water demanding as it needs continues inundation of the field during most of the growing season. Despite being self-sufficient in paddy production, Sri Lanka has relatively low levels of water productivity and water use efficiency. Furthermore, its water and food security is extremely vulnerable to climate change.
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    The status of water use efficiency and productivity with a focus on paddy rice in Zambia 2022
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    In view of the projected world water demand, increased water use efficiency in irrigation is crucial to sustainably increase agricultural productivity. Paddy field systems are especially water demanding, though products such as rice is not only a staple food, but also constitutes a major social and economic activity providing public goods and is a key source of employment and income for the rural population in Zambia. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has been active to increase the understanding of the status of water use efficiency and water productivity in Zambia through implementing the project “Efficient Agricultural Water Use and Management Enhancement in Paddy Fields”, funded by the Japan Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF). The project objective is to identify limits and potentials of paddy rice production at national level. The project findings presented in this report is a basis for assisting the country with the evaluation of the status of water use efficiency and water productivity of paddy fields, providing technical and policy support to enhance water resources management in Zambia. This report will help increasing the knowledge and building capacities of technical experts in relevant institutions, ministries and universities in Zambia. Its analysis of best practices will assist in determining the needs and existing gaps and what options are available to fill these gaps. Furthermore, the policy action matrix developed and the investment portfolio compiled will support the development of future financial plans in the country.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (stand-alone)
    Efficient agricultural water use and management in paddy fields in Zambia
    National outlook
    2022
    Also available in:

    An increasing number of regions in the world are frequently facing water shortage, and water demand is likely to grow in the next 20-30 years due to intensified agriculture, population growth, urbanization and climate change. Future demand of water by all sectors will, thus, require as much as 25 to 40 percent of water to be re-allocated from lower to higher productivity and employment-oriented activities, particularly in water stressed regions. As such, these reallocations are likely to come from agriculture due to its high share of water use. In view of the projected rise in water demand in both agriculture and non-agricultural sectors, appropriate actions that increase water use efficiency especially in irrigation are crucial to sustainably enhance agricultural production and productivity. In Zambia, rice is one of the most important cereal food and is at the centre of major socioeconomic activity for a large share of rural population. Paddy field system are especially water demanding as it needs continues inundation of the field during most of the growing season. In Zambia, there is no controlled infrastructure for paddy irrigation and nearly all of the rice is grown under paddy field system in the country rainfed lowlands. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has been active to increase the understanding of the status of water use efficiency and water productivity in Zambia through the project “Efficient Agricultural Water Use and Management Enhancement in Paddy Fields”, funded by the Japan Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF).

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